Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


OCR GCSE History course notes

All of your notes and resources are here!

Paul Griffin

on 9 January 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of OCR GCSE History course notes

GCSE course notes
The topics
Pre-war period
End of the First World War
Interwar period
1930s- Depression worldwide, Hitler in power, Stalin's economic policies, appeasement in Europe
The New Economic Policy is started by Lenin
Invasion of the Ruhr by the French
First five year plan started by Stalin
Collectivisation begun
- Voluntarily at first
Treaty of Versailles is signed
Lenin dies
Germany 1918-45
British depth study
Was the Weimar Republic doomed from the start?
Why was Hitler able to dominate Germany by 1934?
Did Hitler have complete control?
What was it like to live in Nazi Germany?
Germany after WW1
Impact of TofV
Recovery after 1923 (super Stresemann)
How successful was Weimar?
Nazis in 1920s
Why didn't Hitler succeed before the 1930s?
How did Hitler get into power democratically?
How did Hitler hold onto power?
How did Hitler deal with his enemies
Propaganda and culture
Why were the Nazis so intolerant?
Women and families
Did the Nazis make people rich?
Nazi Germany during WW2
Were the Peace Treaties so unfair?
Was the League of Nations a waste of time?
What caused the Second World War?
What everyone wanted
Why no-one was happy
The reactions...
Was it all justified?
1920s: success story?
Was failure inevitable?
Was the depression a turning point?
The peace treaties of 1919–1923?
Failures of the League in the 1930s?
Hitler’s foreign policy?
The policy of appeasement?
What caused the outbreak of WW2?
Were Abyssinia/ Manchuria turning points?
How important was the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in September 1939?
Your coursework will all be completed in class. Your teacher will teach you the topic, provide you with resources and it's up to you to make as many notes as you possibly can. You will then use these notes in the write up. Make sure that you are happy with writing about how useful and reliable a source might be, about the topics which you have studied and make sure that all the way through your answer you are directly talking about the question being asked. Do all of this and you have a good chance of doing well in this assessment.
Russia 1905-41
Why was the Tsar forced to abdicate in March 1917?
How did the Bolsheviks take power in November 1917?
How did Stalin get into power and stay there?
What was the impact of Stalin's economic ideas?
1905 Revolution
Problems in Russia
Impact of WW1
March 1917 Revolution
The Provisional Govt.
November Revolution
Russian Civil War
The N.E.P.
Why Stalin?
The Purges
Stalin's control
Was his control total?
Five year plans
Did they work?
How did they affect people?
Website about the Weimar Republichm

Establishment of Weimar Republic

Versailles- "The stab in the back"

Occupation of the Ruhr

Lack of support for Weimar

Hitler's rise to power video

A summary of Hitler's rise to power

Why did people support the Nazis videos

Nazi Propaganda video

Nazi control of society video

Nazi ideas about Young people videos

The beginning of the persecution of the Jews video

Opposition to Nazism videos


The impact of the War on Germany
Aims of the big three: http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/aims-of-the-big-three-at-versailles/2431.html
Terms of the treaty: http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/contents-of-the-treaty-of-versailles/2432.html
Overview: The League in the 1920s
Foundation of the League of Nations: http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/weaknesses-in-the-foundation-and-structure-of-the-league-of-nations/2445.html
Success in the 1920s:
Rhineland- http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/the-reoccupation-of-the-rhineland/6072.html
Reasons for appeasment:
Click on this link for a good blog entry on the causes of the Second World War through cartoons

The "piece of paper" speech
Czechoslovakia to Poland: http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/hitler-annexes-czechoslovakia-and-invades-poland/2473.html

Did Hitler always want war?
Causes of WW2
Exam questions
Germany (not year 11)
Causes of WW2
British depth study
Knowledge questions
Source questions
Timeline (under construction)
Guide: Note headings and page references can be found on the board on the left.
Revision materials with past papers can be found on the board on the right.
Videos can be found on the projector at the top
Question technique advice can be found on the tables at the bottom of the picture

Pages 50-54

You need to be able to explain:
What each of the leaders wanted
The motivations of each of the leaders
The terms of the treaty
- Terretorial
- Military
- Financial
- Blame
The treaties for the other defeated nations
The Nazis: A warning from History
Hitler's rise to power (Narrated by Daniel Craig!)
Pages 180-182

You need to be able to explain:
The situation on Russia in 1900
The causes of the Revolution
The events of bloody Sunday
The consequences of the revolution
Pages 176-180

You need to be able to explain:
The social and economic situation in Russia
The way in which Russia was ruled
The weaknesses of the Tsar
Opposition groups in Russia
Pages 182-185

You need to be able to explain:
Social and economic impacts
Desertion in the army
Influence of Rasputin
Pages 186-187

You need to be able to explain:
The long term causes
The short term causes
The events of the revolution
Pages 188-191

You need to be able to explain:
The decisions and weaknesses of the P.G.
The July Days
Sharing power with the Soviet
The structure of the P.G.
Pages 192-194

You need to be able to explain:
The Kornilov Coup
The causes of the revolution
The role of Lenin
Pages 195-197

You need to be able to explain:
The reasons for the war
The Reds and Whites
The reasons for Red victory
The role of Trotsky
Policy of war communism
Page 198

You need to be able to explain:
The reasons for replacing War Communism
The reaction within the Communist party
The Kulaks and their prosperity under NEP
Pages 199-200

You need to be able to explain:
Stalin's strengths
Trotsky's weaknesses
Lenin's will and funeral
The role of Zinoviev and Kamenev
Pages 201-203

You need to be able to explain:
The reasons for the purges
Use of show trials
Pages 203-205

You need to be able to explain:
The Great Terror
The cult of personality and propaganda
Page 205

You need to be able to explain:
How far Stalin had control over the USSR
All page references assume that you are using this text book. If you are using a different book, the titles should still be roughly the same.
If you have misplaced it you must get a replacement from your teacher. However, you can also view much of it here: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=rpY562-RAzIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=ocr+modern+world+history&hl=en&sa=X&ei=sM_RUKaQB-Sq0QWAuoHIBw&redir_esc=y
Pages 206-207

You need to be able to explain:
The reasons for the plans
The aims of the three different plans
How modernised the USSR became
How successful the plans were
Pages 208-209

You need to be able to explain:
Why collectivisation was introduced
What collectivisation was
Pages 207 & 209

You need to be able to explain:
How successful the five year plans were
How successful collectivisation was
Pages 210-211

You need to be able to explain:
How these changes affected:
Ethnic minorities
Other social groups
Paper one depth studies
Pages 54-56

You need to be able to explain:
Why it was so difficult to agree
- Promises made before the treaty
- Collapse of Austria-Hungary and Russian Empire
- The armistice terms
- Public opinion
Pages 56-60

You need to be able to explain:
Why the treaty led to extreme difficulty in Germany
The reactions of the Americans in not ratifying the treaty or joining the League of Nations
The other treaties
Pages 61-62

You need to be able to explain:
Why many have argued that the treaty was unfair
- Harsh punishment of Germany
- Possible future war
- Blame clause

Why some people think it was fair
- The way Germany treaty Russia at Brest-Litovsk
- The damage to French and Belgian land and property
- The massive loss of life caused by the invasion
Pages 61-62

You need to be able to explain:
The aims of the league of nations
The organisation of the league
The commissions and their aims
Pages 65-67

You need to be able to explain:
The issues which the league had from the outset
- Membership
- Security
- Idealism
Pages 68-70

You need to be able to explain:
The successes of the League in the 1920s
- Work of some of the commissions
- Aaland Islands
- Economic collapse of Austria-Hungary
- Greek-Bulgarian border dispute

The failures of the League in the 1920s
- Corfu (1923)
- Vilna
- Disarmament
- Ruhr crisis
Pages 71-74

You need to be able to explain:
Why the depression caused problems for the League
Why many countries became isolationist
Why some countries became more militaristic
- Japan
- Italy
Pages 75-80

You need to be able to explain:
The events of the Manchurian Crisis
The events of the Abyssinian crisis
The league's reaction to both events
The consequences of both events
- Italy and Japan leave the league
- Lack of security for those attack
- League discredited
- Britain and France turn to rearmament
Pages 82-83

You need to be able to explain:
How the treaties had punished Germany
How this had led to the rise of the Nazis
How Germany had constantly tried to re-negotiate the treaties
Page 80

You need to be able to explain:
How failure of collective security had made war far more likely
How Italy, Japan, Britain and France had reacted to this failure
Pages 84-89

You need to be able to explain how the following events led to war:
- Germany leaves the League
- German rearmament
- Anglo-German Naval treaty
- Rhineland
- Rome-Berlin axis
- Anschluss
- Czechoslovakia crisis
- Invasion of Poland
Pages 90-92

You need to be able to explain:
Why some people say that appeasement was a decent policy
- Sympathy for Germany
- Desire for peace (memories of WW1)
- Threat of communism
- Time to re-arm

Why others say it was a terrible idea
- No-one could reason with Hitler
- France and Britain had no right to decide on the futures of countries like Czechoslovakia without speaking their government
- Hitler could have been stopped if opposed earlier
Pages 92-94

You need to be able to explain:
Hitler's motivation
Stalin's motivation
Why the pact made war inevitable
Pages 94-95

You need to be able to explain:
Why Britain abandoned appeasement as a policy in 1939
Why Britain promised to protect Poland
Who was to blame for the Cold War?
Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?
Why did the USA fail in Vietnam?
Why did the USA-USSR alliance begin to break down in 1945?
Why had the USSR gained control of Eastern Europe by 1948?
How did the USA react to Soviet expansionism?
Who was more to blame for the start of the Cold War?
How did the USA react to the Cuban Revolution?
Why did Khrushchev put missiles into Cuba?
Why did Kennedy react as he did?
Why did the USA get increasingly involved in Vietnam?
Why did the USA withdraw from Vietnam?
What were the different ways that the USA and the Communists fought the war?
Cold War 1945-75
Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?
Whose tactics were the most effective the USA's or the Communist's?
The origins of the Cold War; the 1945 summit conferences including the parts played by Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin and Truman, and the breakdown of the USA-USSR alliance in 1945–6
Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe; the Iron Curtain
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, the Berlin Blockade and its immediate consequences.
You need to be able to explain the reasons why both the USA and Russia were to blame for the Cold War
The Cuban Revolution and the USA's reaction to it; the Bay of Pigs
The Cold War by 1962, geography of Cuba, missiles in Turkey, envelopment of USSR by west
The events of the Crisis including the roles of Khrushchev and Kennedy
The resolution and the consequences of the Crisis.
You need to be able to evaluate which side got the most out of the crisis
Increasing American involvement in Vietnam under Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson;
The main events of the war he tactics used by the two sides.
You need to be able to compare the tactics of both sides and decide which was the most effective
Reasons for American withdrawal.
The Cold War
Cold War videos http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/video/ir2/
Vietnam videos http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/video/vietnam/
Why appeasement video
BBC bitesize lego videos
Audio links (BBC bitesize)
Rise to power
Life in Nazi Germany
Russian Revolutions documentary
Stalin documentary- focus on terror
Stalin documentary- rise to power in first 20 minutes
Cuban missile crisis documentary
Vietnam documentary
Causes of Revolutions http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/audio/history/d5_causes_of_the_russian_revolution_of_march_1917.mp3
Audio links (BBC bitesize)
Lenin and the Bolsheviks
Stalin http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/audio/history/d7_stalin.mp3
Audio links (BBC bitesize)
Audio clips (BBC bitesize)
Sample source question:
How far does this source prove that the 1905 revolution was caused by the events of Bloody Sunday?
Points to include:
- Picture shows killing of 200 people by soldiers- this led to massive unrest
- A photo only shows one moment in time so this can't prove it alone
- There were other causes- Russo-Japanese War, unfairness in Russian society
Sample source question:
What is the message of this source?

Important points
- Message is about inequality and unfairness in society
- Probably created by someone supporting workers rights
- Own knowledge- Russian society was massively unfair, the government did little to protect workers from exploitation
- Details from source- the workers at the bottom holding up the entire system.
Sample source question: Why was this image created?

Important points:
- Details from source- controlling of Tsar and Tsarina, evil look about Rasputin, unawareness of Tsarina and Tsar.
- Own knowledge- Rasputin's influence due to his healing of Alexis
- Created to dicredit Rasputin and to criticise the Tsar. At this time it may have been created by the ruling classes who were particularly worried about him. He was eventually killed by well-connected nobility.
Sample source question:
How far does this source prove that the March 1917 revolution was caused by the First World War?
Points to include:
- Picture shows desertion of Russian soliders- Own knowledge- this occured a great deal in 1917 once the Russian war effort started going very badly (especially after defeat at Tannenburg)
- A photo only shows one moment in time so this can't prove it alone
- There were other causes- hunger from food shortages, unfairness in Russian society, mismanagement of war effort by the Tsar
The resulting situation was not cooperation, but what came to be known as the regime of ''dual power", the Soviet relentlessly encroaching upon the prerogative and functions of the Provisional Government.
A modern Historian comments on the Petrograd Soviet
Sample question: To what extent does this source explain the failure of the Provisional Government?
Key points
- Shows one reason- the power sharing arrangment with the Soviet.
- Is reliable because the Historian would have had access to a wide range of source.
- There are other reasons- like poor decision making by P.G.
- The source is also too short to be comprehensive. It lists one reason amongst many.
Sample question: How useful is this source in explaining Lenin's role in the November Revolution?
Key points
- It shows Lenin's inspiration speeches
- Shows role of crowd- July Days (Own knowledge)
- It is limited- Lenin made mistakes too
- It is clearly painted to glorify Lenin- more useful for seeing how Communists wanted to remember Lenin's role or how he tried to portray himself.
A Bolshevik cartoon published in 1919. The dogs are labelled (from left to right) Yudenich, Kolchak, Denikin. These were the commanders of the three main White armies
Sample question: What is the message of this source?
Key points:
- Picture shows capitalist western powers controlling the dogs (representing white generals).
- Suggests that Whites are being controlled. Suggests that Reds are fighting for Russia against foreign powers.
- Ties in with own knowledge- main powers did send troops- partly to stop communism also because Russia had left WW1.
There wasn’t any food in the country. We were down to a little bread each. Then suddenly they started the NEP. Cafes opened. Factories went back into private hands. It was Capitalism. In my eyes it was the very thing I had been fighting against...
Most people supported Lenin, other said he was wrong, and many tore up their party membership cards.
Nikolai Izatchik, a Bolshevik, remembering the NEP in 1992
Sample question: Are you suprised by this source?
Key points:
- It could be seen as suprising that people would be so against a policy which had clear benefits
- Not suprising given the capitalist elements- against Communism
- Own knowledge- Lenin lost a good deal of support through this policy but seen as necessary to survive
Sample question: What is the message of this source?
Key points:
- Stalin is a revered leader, he is loved by his people, he is generous and kind, he is loved by multiple generations, he is father-like, his people are happy, he rules over a diverse nation but they are united in communism and love for him etc.
- This ties in with own knowledge of cult of personality and propaganda
Sample question: What is the message of this source? - Banner says (We are all happy here)
Key points
- The skeleton is clearly not happy, seems to have starved to death
- He is being forced to say this by the man with the gun and whip
- Suggests that the police state is controlling people's viewpoints
- Suggests that conditions in Russia were both repressive and caused people to starve
- Own knowledge- add ideas about the police state, NKVD, prison camps etc.
- Own knowledge- harsh economic policies and mutliple famine etc.
Stalin is too coarse and this defect, although quite tolerable in our midst and in dealing among us Communists, becomes intolerable in a Secretary-General. That is why I suggest that the comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post and appointing another man in his stead who in all other respects differs from Comrade Stalin in having only one advantage, namely, that of being more tolerant, more loyal, more polite and more considerate to the comrades, less capricious, etc.
- Extract from Lenin's Will, 1924
Sample question: Is this source suprising?
Key points
- The source is very critical of Stalin- this is suprising given that Stalin ended up taking power after Lenin
- Stalin was in a prominent position so this type of criticism was definitely harsh
- But it does tie in with own knowledge- Stalin was widely mistrusted
- Stalin also had to go to great lengths to suppress the will and had to scheme his way to power- he was definitely not the obvious choice
Exam advice
Cold War
German Revolution- Kaiser Abdicates
March- Revolution in Russia. Tsar abdicates, Provisional Government seize power
November- Bolsheviks carry out revolution and come to power under Lenin
Beginning of First World War- Russia lose Battle of Tannenberg.
1905 Revolution in Russia. Bloody Sunday, end of Russo-Japanese War.
Beginning of Russo-Japanese War.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cold War
Treaty of Versailles Cartoons
Message: The Treaty of Versailles was unfair as the German economy could never hope to recover given the large burden placed on it by the Treaty of Versailles.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Message: It was difficult for the main powers to aggree on the Treaty of Versailles. The USA had to play a mediating role to try and get everyone to agree.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Message: The allies said that the war was about demilitarising Europe but they clearly do not want to give up their own military forces. Germany is being bullied into an unfair treaty- they have no choice but to sign.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Message: The Treaty of Versailles will result in another war. Those born in 1919 will have to fight in around 1940. The peace treaty will not protect peace.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
League of Nations cartoons
Paper one international relations- you choose the one which your class has studied.
Message: The League of Nations will fail due to America not joining. This is ironic given that the League was Wilson's idea.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Message: The League of Nations will fail because of international problems.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Message: Peace will not be secured by the League of Nations. It is too hard to acheive.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Message: The international community is condeming the invasion of Manchuria but this will not work because Japan is simply ignoring this moral argument. We can infer that a military response might be required.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Message: Mussolini thinks that the Abyssinians were uncivilised but his use of poison gas and planes proves that it is he who is actually uncivilised.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Message: That Italy invaded in the name of "civilising" the Abyssinians but their civilisation has only destroyed the people. We can infer that this was not the reason behind the invasion at all.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Lead up to WW2 cartoons
Message: That Hitler has managed to continue unopposed due to the policy of appeasement. The leaders of democracy should have stood up to him.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Message: That Germany are claiming that they only want to take a small part of Czechoslovakia but will really destroy Czech democracy if they get the chance.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Message: That Europe is interconnected and that it is important to stand up to German militarism because it affects Britain.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Message: That peace has failed despite agreements and assurances from all of the major powers. Countries have not honoured the agreements which they made.
Remember: Add details from the source and own knowledge to back this up.
Message of source
What is the message of this cartoon? (7)
In this question you should have a good look at the details in the source- main characters, captions, background etc. Then think about what the source is trying to say. What opinion is the artist giving? In your answer you should identify the meaning behind the picture, use the details in the source (describe the important parts and what that tells us) and also your own knowledge to explain how the cartoon shows this.

For example: Question 1a) https://dl.dropbox.com/u/4656662/June%202012%20Russia.pdf
“The message of source A is that Germany is being forced into signing the Treaty of Versailles. It also suggests that Germany is not happy about the agreement but will sign it anyway. This is shown in the source because Germany is shown as a man on the end of a diving board. A large hand labelled allies is about to push him in which shows them being forced into signing. This is noted as the “finishing touch” in the caption which shows that the last part of peace discussions was to force Germany into signing. The disgruntled look on Germany’s face clearly shows that he does not want to dive in and sign the agreement. This is further backed up by my own knowledge because many in Germany were desperately unhappy about the treaty. Its harsh clauses such as £6,600 million in reparations payments and dramatic cuts to the armed forces made many think that the treaty should not be signed. However, Germany’s weak position in 1919 and the strength of the allies made not signing impossible since Germany would have been invaded. This is all clearly shown in the cartoon.
Explain question
Explain question (6/8)
Explain questions do NOT want you to simply describe the event. They are looking for 2-3 reasons or factors. E.g. 2-3 different reasons why the event occurred. You should split this answer into different paragraphs for each of the different reasons.
For example: Explain why Clemenceau and Lloyd George disagreed over how to treat Germany in 1919.
“Clemenceau and Lloyd George disagreed over the treaty for a number of different reasons.
Firstly, they had different experiences of the First World War. Britain had lost over a million soldiers in the war effort but the fighting did not take place in Britain itself. This is a key difference from France who experienced fighting on their soil and huge losses in both men, resources and towns. Clemenceau therefore wanted compensation for all of this loss whilst Lloyd George was more prepared to look to the future. This led Clemenceau to demand huge reparations and the return of Alsace-Lorraine which were both not in Britain’s interests so caused disagreement with Lloyd George.
Secondly, both men wanted a very different relationship with Germany in the future. Lloyd George saw Germany as a strong trading partner with Britain so wished to rebuild their economy quickly. However, Clemenceau wanted to crush Germany and allow France to dominate Europe. He suggested splitting Germany up into smaller states to achieve this which wouldn’t help Britain to trade with Germany. Clemenceau was also worried about a future invasion so pushed for the demilitarisation of the Rhineland and the destruction of Germany’s armed forces. This was not such a concern for Lloyd George who had not experienced invasion and could rely on Britain’s more secure location in any future conflict.
Finally, Clemenceau and Lloyd George disagreed because they had different priorities in the future. France would continue to focus on Europe and so needed to keep Germany weak and focus on their domination of Europe. However, Britain was far more concerned about their empire and their worldwide situation. This caused a difference in aims in the treaty.
Therefore, Lloyd George and Clemenceau had very different experiences of the First World War, different expectations from their future relationship with Germany and different priorities in their foreign policy going forward.
Describe question
Describe question (4 marks)
In this question you are only expected to provide 4 pieces of information. This can be best done in bullet points.
For example: Describe the successes of the League of Nations in the 1920s
“The League of Nations succeeded in a number of ways in the 1920s
•They helped Sweden and Finland sort out a dispute over the Aaland Islands in the 1920s.
•They helped Austria and Hungary to manage their economies through international loans. This stopped their economies from collapsing.
•They successfully pressurised the Greeks to withdraw from Bulgaria when they invaded in 1925.
•The special commissions did good work in helping to solve problems in health care and slavery.”
How far question
How far question
This question is looking for you to examine two sides of an argument. You should write a one line introduction and then two sections looking at the two different sides of the question. After this, a short conclusion will help you to get the last marks.
In the depth study question you will be given two bullet points to work with. These give you the two sides of the argument.
For example: The following were equally important in Stalin’s establishment of a dictatorship:
i) the use of terror
ii) Propaganda
How far do you agree with this statement? Refer only to i) and ii) in your answer.
“Terror and propaganda complimented each other as a way for Stalin keeping control in the USSR.
On the one hand, Stalin’s use of terror has become famous for its brutality. Stalin launched a Great Terror in 1937 using the secret police (NKVD) to find anyone who opposed him. Yezhov, the leader of the NKVD, initially investigated party officials through show trials but the terror soon spread to all parts of society. At least 700,000 people were executed in this period. To do this, the secret police used informers to find out if anyone was speaking out against Stalin. Even a joke about Stalin could cause someone to inform on the joke-teller. As well as execution, the terror resulted in thousands being sent to prison camps for hard labour on projects for the 5 year plans in remote parts of Russia. Around 250,000 people worked on the White Sea Canal and almost two-thirds did not survive. This led to a state of paranoia and fear in the USSR which helped Stalin to keep control.
On the other hand, Stalin was also loved by many of the people who would want to do anything against him. He managed to achieve this level of support through propaganda. Stalin’s image and ideas were everywhere and this made it difficult for people to think anything negative about their leader. The state controlled education, radio, films, newspapers which led to Stalin influencing everything about everyday life. In the late 1930s, this widespread propaganda resulted in a “cult of personality” which led to Stalin being virtually worshipped by the people who saw him as a father figure. In one speech he was even referred to as the “supreme genius of humanity”. This love certainly helped him to keep control because with a people who loved him, Stalin was unlikely to receive criticism or opposition.
Overall, Stalin both propaganda and his use of terror helped Stalin to keep control. They complimented each other well since his propaganda made many love him and his terror made the rest afraid to say anything against him. Whilst of roughly equal importance, terror was the more important factor since the terror was so widespread and the cult of personality only really had an effect towards the end of this period.
Other source questions
They are various other source questions which could be asked. If you aren’t sure what to do, have a go anyway, you might get a few of the marks for saying some quite basic things. Try to always refer to some own knowledge and details in the source.
Are you surprised by this source? This question is like a how far question. There will be something surprising about the source which you need to point out using details from the source. You then need to explain why the source says what it does using your own knowledge.
Why was this source created? In response to this, you are looking for the purpose of the source, why did the person who said, wrote or drew it produce what they did. This is sometimes obvious- if Stalin is speaking about “smashing the Kulaks” the speech was produced because he wanted to eliminate the Kulaks! You need to use own knowledge and details to back this up so in our example you will need to explain who the Kulaks were and why Stalin wished to “smash them”.
How far does this source prove? This is a how far question. On the one hand you need to show what the source suggests and shows. Use details from the source and own knowledge to do this. This might suggest something but one source can rarely PROVE something on its own. On the other hand you need to explain why the source is limited and can’t tell us everything. You could also explain that there is more information to consider.
E.g. If a picture shows a solider deserting and asks “does this prove that deserting resulted in the March 1917 revolution” you might explain that the picture certainly suggests that this was important. Explain how desertion led to all the problems of the First World War. However, you might point out that one picture doesn’t prove that desertions were important as it simply shows a limited number of people at one moment in time. You would also point out that there were other reasons like the poverty in Russia and the bad influence of Rasputin.
There are other ways the exam board will ask source questions but if you read the question carefully and stay focused in your answer, you should be able to do a good job of answering it.
Source question examples
1918 Representation of the people Act.
This was introduced because under old laws, many men who had served in the army had now lost the right to vote because they had been away to long.
It was also used as an opportunity to bring in the vote for women.
Only women over 30 could vote. Equality was achieved in 1929 when more women were given the vote.
Changed attitudes- Treaty of Versailles
People in Britain had little sympathy for Germans, even though they had suffered more casualties and hardship than British people.
People wanted extreme measures to be taken and demanded than Lloyd George “hang the Kaiser”. Lloyd George promised to “squeeze Germany until the pips squeak” even though he thought it was a bad idea to punish them too harshly.
At Versailles, Lloyd George didn’t push for the harshest punishments as he understood the danger of doing so. However, he had to be seen not to break his promises.
Impact of war
DORA allowed the govt. to control newspapers and other media during the war.
Pacifist newspaper The Tribunal was shut down
Post-war, twelve newspaper owners received knighthoods for their services
Leading authors (Kipling, Conan Doyle) signed a Declaration of Authors in support of the war. They’d produce materials for no fee.
Children were targeted through books, games and toys.
DORA also allowed the govt. to take over food supplies.
Shortages began when U-Boats sunk 1 in 4 British Merchant ships.
At one point, Britain had less than six weeks of wheat supply left.
Voluntary rationing schemes were introduced in 1916, but these failed.
Compulsory rationing introduced in 1918, rationed sugar, meat, butter, jam, margarine
Gained public support as it was equal.
Bread was never rationed.
Food & Rationing
Defence of the Realm Act- DORA
Passed at the outbreak of war (Aug 1914)
Gave govt. the powers to take over industry important to the war effort
Gave powers to take over privately owned farmland
Gave powers to censor newspapers and letters home from the front.
As Britain suffered more casualties it became clear that the government needed more men for the army.
In 1915, the government made a list (National Registration Act) of all men and women between 15 and 17.
Military Service Acts brought in conscription in 1916. On January 25th 1916, single men 18-40 were conscripted.
On May 16th 1916, this was extended to all men 18-40.
Government control
The War effort
Both the NUWSS and the WSPU halted their campaigns for women’s suffrage when the war began
The Suffragettes organised a “right to serve” and despite a slow start in mobilising women, more and more joined the essential work which was needed as men left their jobs and entered the army.
They worked in munitions, on farmland, as chauffeurs, even as medics on the front.

Getting the Vote
By the end of the war, women had proven themselves as worthy candidates for the vote.
They got the vote because of the work they’d been doing during the war.
In the December General Election, women over 30 voted for the first time.
Women at War
The Suffragists
Different unions formed to make the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS)
Headed by Mrs. Millicent Fawcett
Believed in peaceful protest, such as marches, petitions etc.
They should demonstrate legally to get a democratic, legal right.
Female Suffrage.
19th century attitudes
Many people thought of women as weak: both emotionally and physically.
A woman needed a man to protect her.
Women should not own her own property and should not should not go into careers- their main role should be to have a family.
Until 1882, money belonging to a woman became her husband’s when they married.
Until 1891, a husband could imprison his wife in their home.
Until 1925, any children legally belonged to their mother’s husband.
More jobs became available in the late Victorian period like shop-work and teaching. Elizabeth Anderson qualified as a doctor proving many men wrong about a woman’s ability to study and learn.
In 1894, women were allowed to vote in local elections.
Position of Women in 1900

Free School Meals, 1906
School Medical Inspections, 1907
Children’s Charter Act, 1908
School Clinics, 1912

Old Age Pensions Act, 1908
Labour Exchanges, 1909
National Insurance Act part 1&2, 1911
Pushing for an A grade? Get your facts right
The National Insurance Act, 1911
Split into two parts
Part 1: Health Insurance
All men and women in lower-paid manual jobs earning under £160 per year had to join.
They had to pay 4d per week
Employer added 3d and government added 2d (“9d for 4d”)
In return, the worker received up to 26 weeks off at 10 shillings a week. There was also free medical care for the insured.
Part 2: Unemployment insurance
In trades such as building, shipbuilding and engineering, underemployment was common.
To cover this, the Act required an extra (on top of part 1) 2½d.
The employer would pay 2½d and the govt. would pay 1¾d.
This gave 7 shillings for periods of unemployment up to 15 weeks.
It deliberately wasn’t much, because the govt. didn’t want workers to sit back on their benefits.
Britain was the only country in the world to have this: it was seen as revolutionary.
Reforms for Workers
Old Age Pensions Act, 1908
David Lloyd George, in his first budget as Chancellor, introduced this. A person over 70 with no other income received 5 shillings per week.
Married couples would receive 7 shillings 5 pence (7s5d) a week.
Anyone who had an income in excess of £31 per year was ineligible.
Pensions could be refused to those who hadn’t worked to the ‘best of their ability’ throughout their life.
The pension was non-contributory i.e. the pension holder didn’t have to contribute anything to it.
People would cry ‘God Save Lloyd George’ when collecting their pensions.
Reforms for the Old
Free School Meals, 1906
This allowed (but didn’t enforce) local authorities to provide school meals. This meant that children would eat at least one decent meal per day. However, because it didn’t force authorities, only around half actually introduced this.
School Medical Inspections, 1907
Every local education authority had to set up a school medical service. Provided regular medical checks, but not treatment.
Children’s Charter Act, 1908
Introduced to combat parents killing their children to cash in on insurance. Parents were prosecutable for neglect. Borstals were also set up to house young offenders away from adult prisons.
School Clinics
An advancement of the School Medical Inspections, this was extended to provide treatment in schools as well.
Reforms for Children
Changing Attitudes
In the 1800s, it was the belief that people were poor because they were lazy, or because they wasted their money. This belief began to change in the early 1900s, when people began to think that it wasn’t always the person’s fault that they were poor.
Social Reformers
Charles Booth carried out research into poverty in London and published a 17-volume book from 1889-1902. He established the idea of a Poverty line and found that 30% of people live on less than £1 a week.
Seebohm Rowntree (Fruit Pastilles)- studied poverty in York and published A Study of Town Life in 1901. Had friends in high places, letting him influence politics.
The Boer War
Britain went to war in South Africa in 1899. It transpired that 50% of volunteer soldiers were unfit for service. Reforms were needed otherwise the army would be weak.
The Liberals and the Conservatives were the main parties in Britain. But there were the upcoming Labour party who worked for the working classes. Labour promised reforms, so the Liberals had to as well.
National efficiency
Britain’s status as a world power was at threat in 1906 and it was felt that a fitter, healthier work force might make them more efficient. Bismark had introduced reforms like this in Germany which many in Britain (like Lloyd George) found impressive.
Why were the Liberal Reforms introduced?
What were working conditions like for the poor in 1900?
The Industrial Revolution had transformed Britain in the Nineteenth century. The rise of factories led to cramp housing, poor sanitation and the spread epidemic diseases like Cholera.
Governments in Victorian Britain had begun to deal with these problems and protect people.
The 1834 poor law helped people in poverty by providing places in work houses, basic medical care and work. Generally, it dealt with the effects of poverty but not the causes.
The sick and old were two of the groups most affected by poverty.
However, the Liberal Government of 1906 thought that it was important not to just protect people but also improve people’s lives.
The Liberal Reforms.
In comparison to military casualties, civilian casualties were very light
1500 civilians were killed by enemy actions
In Dec 1914, Zeppelin airships shelled North East England
57 raids by Zeppelin ships
27 by Gotha bombers.
Civilian Casualties
In August 1914, when war broke out, half a million people joined the army.
The general belief was that the war would be over by Christmas 1914.
Because of the high casualty rate, they needed more, and there were fewer and fewer volunteers.
Conscription was introduced in 1916.
Conscientious Objectors had to appear before tribunals to explain why they refused to fight.
Some ‘conchies’ were sentenced to death, others to imprisonment.
Historians are divided about the merits of these groups.
The Suffragists were more widely respected but they did not manage to make the government change their mind.
The Suffragettes were far better at getting headlines but they lost public support through their extreme measures.
By 1914, neither group had managed to get the vote.
During the war, both groups contributed to the war effort and this is seen as major reason for women getting the vote in 1918.
How effective were the Suffragists and Suffragettes?
The Suffragettes
Originally a splinter group of the Suffragists.
Became the Women’s Social & Political Union (WSPU)
Begun by Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters.
Believed peaceful methods were getting nowhere- became more frustrated as talks and voted in parliament brought no progress.
Were more violent- window breaking/ firebombing etc.
The 1913 Derby
Emily Davidson (a suffragette) ran out in front of the king’s horse at the Derby (horse race) trying to get attention for the suffragettes. She was killed when the horse trampled her.
The authorities weren’t sure how to respond; many were confused what middle-class women were doing behaving in such an extreme way.
Many were arrested and when they went on hunger strike, were force-fed. This caused public outcry.
In 1913 they passed the “Cat and Mouse Act” which allowed prisons to release people on hunger strike, only to re-arrest them once they had got better.
Men & Women had different responsibilities or ‘spheres’. Men were suited to politics, women to the home, cooking/cleaning etc.
Most women weren’t interested in voting
Women were irrational and wouldn’t vote wisely
Giving the vote to women would mean giving the vote to all men, some of whom weren’t worthy of it.
Women didn’t fight in wars, so shouldn’t be able to vote for govt. that might have to declare war.
Political parties worried that giving women the vote might negatively affect their chances of winning in elections.
Arguments against Female Suffrage.
The Vote would improve life for all women
Australia & NZ (owned by GB) had votes for women
Many women were already involved in politics at some level anyway
Women paid the same rates and taxes as men, so should be able to vote on how the taxes are spent
Britain was not a democracy if 50% of the population could not vote.
Women had already voted in local elections.
More women were educated and employed than ever before.
Arguments for Female Suffrage.
Labour Exchanges, 1909
William Beveridge first came up with the idea in 1909. He found that too many men had casual jobs and that it would be better to try and find long-term work for them.
Volunteer-run Labour Exchanges had been run for some time and united employers with people looking for work.
Unemployed people could sign a register where they’d find out about any other available work. This helped lots of people to find jobs.
Reforms for the Unemployed
OCR GCSE Modern World History
British Depth Study
Full transcript