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Plants

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Courtney Sickles

on 24 April 2013

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Transcript of Plants

Plants Review Everything needs to be classified into a category. Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species We are focusing the plant and fungi kingdoms in this section. Fungi range in size and shape can be unicellular like yeast
or multi-cellular like tree fungi over 4 feet examples: yeast, mold, mushrooms How to Eat or Get Food Heterotrophs: cannot make their own food Obtain energy and chemicals by growing on a food source Fungi release chemicals that digest the substance on which they are growing and then they absorb the digested food. Some could capture small animals: Oyster mushrooms release tiny roundworms in the soil that fungi in the soil can capture and grow on Some will have a Symbiotic Relationship How Fungi Eat or Get Food Most will get their food from dead organisms and are called decomposers decomposers will break down dead plant and animal matter for energy Structure Multicellular fungi are made up of threadlike tubes called hyphae
Hyphae: branch and weave together to create the shape
Can produce up to 40 meters of hyphae and hour Hyphae are continuous threads of cytoplasm with many nuclei that have one common job
In plants and animals each section is closed off with only one nucleus Fungi Reproduction Reproduction by the means of spores
Spores are tiny reproductive cells that are protected by a cell wall; very small and lightweight so they can travel great distances in the wind Need to find an habitable body to survive off of with the right combination of temperature, moisture and food Forms Mushrooms They are shaped like umbrellas The spores are produced on the underside of the cap. Yeast Required when making soft, fluffy bread
This works because yeast needs moist, warm areas that are full of food to survive. As bread grows, the yeast will produce carbon dioxide, which explains the many bubbles in the bread or the holes you see when you slice it Reproduce by budding: A portion of yeast cell pushes out of the cell wall and forms a tiny bud; eventually the bud will break away and become new yeast Mold Can be used to help treat infections: used to put moldy items (bread, cheese, fruits) on infections Sir Alexander Fleming, in 1928, discovered that pencillium could kill some bacterias. He created the first antibiotic, penicillin Makes many foods such as tofu, soy sauce, cheeses
Blue streaks in bleu cheese are mold However, some can make you sick; found on foods that have sat around for too long How Fungi Interacts With Others: Diseases Fungi will damage and destroy crops; they can also infect plants and produce toxins that could injure or kill humans One can grow in stored grain and produce a toxin that could cause cancer (aflatoxin) One will replace grains of rye with hard spiky growths known as ergot. This can cause burning or prickling sensations, hallucinations, or convulsions
Many historians believe that this was responsible for the Salem Witch Trials Fungus-Plant Associations Helpful fungi cover about 80% of the world's plants' roots Some may send hyphae into the roots to help the roots grow This association helps protect roots from acid rain, drought, cold, and other root diseases Lichens can live on rocks, in the hot, dry desert, in the frozen tundra, wooden poles, sides of trees, tops of mountains is made up of fungus and an alga that live together alga: a simple plantlike autotroph that uses sunlight to make its own food Plants without Seeds Algae multi-cellular found in water; ponds, lakes, rivers plantlike autotroph that uses sunlight to produce its food scientists argue about its classification: some say protists others plants. Why do you think it could be either? Algae Continued One of the first plants to appear on Earth; fossils of algae from over 900 million years ago They are different from land plants
Do not have special tubes to transport water and other materials (no roots, stems, leaves)
Do not have seeds 3 types of algae: Brown, Red, Green
Named because of their pigment or the colored chemicals found in their cells Brown Algae Scientific name Sargassum
Named this due to its home in the Sargasso Sea: located between Africa and Bermuda in the Atlantic Ocean Air bubbles help sargassum float near the top to get sunlight Floats on the top in thick, enormous mats due to lack of wind and waves in this area Kelp and rockweed can also be classified as brown algae Food? In China, Japan, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, and more, they will eat it. Red Algae Can grow to several meters long but never as big as Sargassum Usually grow attached to rock on the ocean floor Can survive at depths of 170 meters The red pigments help the algae get the necessary sunlight, even at those depths, to complete photosynthesis Found in foods: ingredient, carrageenan can be found in ice cream, creamy salad dressing, chocolate milk, frosting Green Algae Found in fresh water or in moist areas of land
However, some can be found in salt water or with lichens or even within worms, sponges and protists Have similar lifestyles to land plants since it is believed that land plants evolved from green algae Began as an unicellular organism and evolved over time into multicellular algae and ten into mosses while a different group evolved into ferns Land Plants Need to support leaves and other parts so they do not collapse Need to obtain water and minerals Need to transport food, water, minerals from one part to another Need to prevent water loss to the environment Need to get sperm and egg cells together for reproduction Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts Tiny plants that need a moist area to live can be found on wet rocks, muddy banks of ponds located low to the ground: do not need rigid stems for support Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts Much simpler transportation of materials: less space to travel Do not need to adapt for water loss: always near water Reproductive cells are in water tight sealed cells: can survive long periods without water Sphagnum Moss added to garden soil to enrich it and help water retention Can change soil chemical balance (pH) to make it better for certain crops can help prevent disease causing bacteria from harming seeds PEAT MOSS: works similarly to sphagnum moss conditions soil and used as fuel for decomposers Ferns Seedless plant that has special adaptations to survive on land Has a waxy covering on its leaves to prevent from water loss
Roots to enable them to gather water and minerals from the soil
Tiny tubes to transport food, water, and other materials through out the body
**This is known as the vascular system of plants** Vascular plants are over 400 million years old Vascular System allows for a quicker and more effective transport of materials Ferns Grow much taller than mosses Height ranges from a few centimeters to nearly a meter Usually found in the rain forests or other tropical areas Ferns have leaves
They are divided into smaller leaf sections Stems are hidden from sight by the large leaves Fern Ferns need standing water so the sperm cells can swim to the fern egg cell Popular houseplants and have many uses
Aid crop growth
Aid the growth of orchids
Provide home for certain bacterias that will act as a fertilizer
Can be eaten as food Plants with Seeds Vascular plants that produce seeds
Vascular system is full of tubes and special vascular tissue to help transport materials Vascular Tissue: xylem or phloem xylem: carries water and minerals from the roots up through the plant; have thicker cell walls to support the plant phloem: carries food throughout the plant upwards and downwards Roots Anchor the plant to the ground
Absorb water and minerals from the soil
Store food for the plants Two plans: fibrous roots or taproots Fibrous Roots: consist of several main roots that branch repeatedly to form a mass of thin roots EX grass, corn, most trees Taproots: consist of a long, thick, main root and thinner toots that will branch out and extend EX carrots, cacti, dandelions Structure of a Root Outermost part: Epidermis
Thin, hair-like extensions come off of this layer called root hairs
Root hairs help bring in nutrients Next layer going in, cortex: stores food for the plant and will help organize nutrients traveling through the phloem and xylem At the tip, there is the root cap to protect the tip as it grows through the soil
Just behind the root cap are growth tissues; new cells will form here Purpose of Roots Food
Carrots, beets, yams, turnips are edible roots Root of the cassava plant is used to make tapioca pudding Marshmallows were originally made from the marsh mallow roots today they are made from sugar, cornstarch, gelatin, and egg white Some roots will be used for spices: licorice, horseradish, sassafras Others used for medicines, dyes, and insecticides Stem provides the way to transport water, minerals, and food from the roots to the leaves of the plant Use the xylem and phloem tissues to help with transportation Support system of the plant; holding up the leaves to the sun Stems will come in a variety of sizes based on the type of plant: flowers will have smaller stems while a tree trunk can be very large. Types Herbaceous and Woody Herbaceous: have soft, green stems like sunflowers, peas, grass, tomatoes Woody: stems contain wood like roses, maples, firs, oaks Woody Stem Structure Outermost: bark, tough, waterproof to protect the inside of the tree Next: Vascular Cambium; where you find the xylem and phloem In the center is the pith; large thin-walled cells that will store food and water Leaves Photosynthesis leaves will vary from plant to plant based on the type of plant and the needs that is has Most leaves will follow the same set-up; there will be a stalk: to connect the leaf to the stem and a blade: the thin part of the leaf to help during photosynthesis food-making process that converts light energy into usable energy for the plant Photosynthesis chlorophyll captures light energy
the green pigment allows for easier capture light energy combines with water (from the soil) and carbon dioxide (from the air) This process creates food for the plant: a type of sugar called glucose The plant breaks down glucose to release energy for all of the cells in the plant Photosynthesis Glucose could be used to help repair damaged cells Other product is oxygen which is important to us carbon dioxide + water sunlight

chlorophyll glucose + oxygen What this means: plant leaves will take in carbon dioxide and water from their environment Chlorophyll captures the sunlight and that mixes with the carbon dioxide and water from the outside environment The final products are glucose and oxygen Leaf Structure Leaf Structure Outer layer: epidermis
They are covered with a waxy, waterproof coating that helps to prevent water loss Light passes through the epidermis to the mesophyll: middle layer where photosynthesis will occur carbon dioxide enters through tiny openings in the epidermis called stomata to travel to the mesophyll
the stomata will also allow oxygen and water out Transpiration during a drought? leaf structure the process of water loss through leaves is called transpiration a birch transpires about 17,000 liters during a summer the grass on a football field can transpire nearly 3,000 liters on a summer day light spectrum in order to protect from losing too much water, the plant may close the stomata
each stoma is guarded by cells that will open and close due how much water pressure they have, generally open during the day and closed at night
during a drought, the stomata will close and remain closed until water is available to reopen Reproduction in Seed Plants do not need water to reproduce sperm cells will go directly to the egg cell reproductive parts are called cones and flowers
female cones contain ovules which is where the egg is stored
male cones produce tiny grains of pollen light spectrum Light will hit an object and some color wavelengths will be absorbed, some will be reflected; we see whatever is reflected

For example, when you see a red shirt, the shirt is absorbing all the colors of light except for the red color.

White is a combination of all colors, so when we see white, the object is reflecting all the colors the same.

Black is the opposite. When we see a black object that means almost all the colors of light are being absorbed. During photosynthesis, the chlorophyll will absorb most colors of light but reflects green pollen is carried by the wind or animals to the mature ovules for reproduction; this process is called pollination Angiosperms After pollination comes fertilization, the pollen grain opens up once it is with the egg cell plants that have their seeds and ovules inside an ovary Gymnosperms plants that do not have an ovary surrounding their seeds or ovules Seeds All seeds consist of a seed coat, a young plant, and stored food seed coat: very tough, it grows from the ovule wall; examples: skin on peanuts, corn, lima beans young plant: also known as embryo and looks like a tiny plant; eventually the embryo will grow and push out of the seed and turn into the plants roots Diagrams of different seeds Seed Dispersal the act of scattering seeds this can be done in many different ways dandelions: when you blow the puffy parts into the air, you are spreading seeds
Others can be dispersed through the wind as well; pines, maples (helicopter seeds) Humans and animals can play a role by carrying seeds from one place to another
Burdock spurs will cling onto people Some seeds can just fall off of the plant and begin growing there
Coconut floats in water and is then carried to the next piece of land through currents Natural Explosion of seeds sends them flying into the air like impatiens Seed Dispersal Seeds will wait or stay dormant after being dispersed
When they have enough moisture and oxygen, and the right temperature, seeds will go through germination Germination: the stage of early growth of an embryo plant also known as sprouting Gymnosperms oldest group of seed plants; as old as dinosaurs Four different phyla (plural form of phylum) make up this group: cycads, ginkgoes, conifers, gnetophytes Cycads tropical plants, resemble palm trees Will grow to about the same height as humans (5-7 feet) There will be a trunk with feathery leaves branching out on top of it; in the center of the leaves will be the mature cones Ginkgoes Common during the time of the dinosaurs Only one species still exists today known as the maidenhair tree No longer found in the wild Today, they are found lining many US city streets or in Chinese gardens as descendents from their plants Ginkgo seeds will smell very badly; like rotten eggs Conifers 550 species making this the largest group of gynmosperms large in size with needlelike or scalelike leaves dominant in the Northern Hemisphere: redwoods, bristlecone pines Conifers Most conifers fall into the category of evergreen: spruce, fir, pines, cedars, hemlocks Evergreens will keep their leaves year-round but a few conifers will lose their leaves: larches, bald cypress They are very important for people: wood for building, pulp for paper, seeds of certain pines will be used for flavoring **Recently discovered, the bark of the Pacific Yew tree has shown promise for certain cancer treatments Gnetophytes Has characteristics of gymnosperms and angiosperms
Have vessels to transport water like angiosperms There are about 90 different species including Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia Angiosperms largest group of plants in the world: 230,000 known species known as flowering plants: flowers are the structures that contain the reproductive organs of angiosperms Understanding the Diagram sepals: leaf-like structures that contain the bud
as the bud develops, the sepals will pull back petals: colorful, leaf-like structures that emerge from the sepals
the colors and scents help attract insects and other animals for pollination assistance stamens: thin stalks with small knobs on top; male reproductive organs
the stalk is called the filament
the knob is called the anther which produces pollen Understanding the Diagram pistils: female reproductive organs; found in the center of the flower; can have more than one
stigma: sticky tip
style: slender tube
ovary: hollow structure at the base of the style; contains one or more ovules pollination occurs when a grain of pollen lands on the stigma Pollination if the pollen received is the correct type, the pollen grain will break open a tube will connect through the style to the ovule, fertilizing the egg cell in the ovule As the seed develops, the ovary will change and turn into a fruit fruit: a ripened ovary that encloses and protects the seed or seeds we are able to eat many fruits; apples, cherries, tomatoes, cucumbers Growth Annual, Biennial, Perennial Annuals: plants that complete their life cycle in one growing season Biennials: plants that complete their life cycle in two years
*they sprout leaves and grow roots in the first year
*the roots remain active during the winter
*the following spring, the plant produces seeds and flowers petunias, marigolds, snapdragons, geraniums sugar beets, carrots, celery, certain types of foxgloves Perennials plants that live for many years many are herbaceous like peonies most are woody like rhododendron
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