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SPR18 Slavery in Colonial Jamaica Anth154 Fall16

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Julie Jenkins

on 6 February 2018

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Transcript of SPR18 Slavery in Colonial Jamaica Anth154 Fall16

Slavery in Colonial Jamaica
Work all night on a drink of rum
(Daylight come and me wan' go home)
Stack banana till the mornin' come
(Daylight come and me wan' go home)

Come, Mister Tally Man, tally me banana
(Daylight come and me wan' go home)
Come, Mister Tally Man, tally me banana
(Daylight come and me wan' go home)

1494, Christopher Columbus
Diego Columbus 1509
established Spanish colony (Santiago)
Looking for gold & silver
used indigenous population, Arawak, as labor
population of 60,000 died b/c of disease & working conditions
British- 1655
settlers given land to cultivate sugar and cocoa
autonomy from government-- via own Legislative Assembly
relied on import of Africans to be used as slaves for labor
1655-1808-- 1 million Africans brought to Jamaica
wealth created by use of enslaved labor-- 18,000,000
--Slavery ended in 1834
--formerly enslaved served as 'apprentices' for 4-6 years
--full emancipation in 1838
subsistence farming & local trade
late 19th century- early 20th century
---sugar cultivation decreases
--American United Fruit corporation starts banana production and export
--lands sold to corporation, people had to turn to wage labor in banana production/export
--emergent middle-class through clerical posts
brought over 1st group of Africans to be used as slaves in 1517
--Baptist Church bought and subdivided property
--"free villages"
-19,000
plantation owners turned to indentured servants

--marginalization of former enslaved from accumulation of land, wealth, education
--political power determined by land ownership and literacy
-expansion of British colonial control
focused on instilling middle class British definitions of "respectability"
discipline
temperance
work/ industry
thrift
self-help
Christian living
family structure:
--marriage
--male leadership
respect for leadership of educated middle-class
--Marcus Garvey (born 1887)
--recognized RACISM as factor in black social and economic success
Racism:
--not just 'beliefs" or prejudice
--institutional
--distribution of power, access to wealth, opportunities, justice
"History is lived in the present" (Stolzoff)

Based on your readings so far and general reflection, what do this mean?
Burning Spear- Christopher Columbus (1980)

I and I old I know
I and I old I say
I and I reconsider
I and I see upfully that
Christopher Columbus is a damn, blasted liar
Christopher Columbus is a damn, blasted liar
Yes Jah

He is saying that
He's the first one
Who discovered Jamaica
I and I say that,
"What about the Arawak Indians..
and the few black man who were round here before him?"
What experiences did those who were enslaved have?
"everyday forms of resistance" (Scott)
dances, music
myalism
Native Baptist
"British imperialism was not merely a system of economic exploitation and political domination, but also one of cultural control that attempted to socialize colonial populations into accepting the moral and cultural superiority of Englishness"/ Whiteness (Thomas 2009)
African/Blackness as socially/culturally/politically ascribed category set in opposition to Whiteness
And visa versa...
1 rebellion every 5 years throughout the 18th century.

--Tacky Rebellion- 1760-
--Baptist War/Myalist War (Sam Sharpe) - 1831
English Baptist missionary:
"I am pained, painted to the soul at being told that many of have agreed not to work any more for your owners, and I fear this is too true. I learned that some wicked person has persuaded you that the King of England has made you free..Hear me! I love your souls and I would not tell you a lie for the whole world; I assure you that it is false, false as hell can make it. I entreat you not to believe it, but go to your work as formerly. If you have any love for Jesus Christ, to religion, to your ministers or to those kind friends in England who have helped you to build this chapel, and who are sending a minister for you, do not be led away. God commands you to be obedient"
Sharpe responds:
"we have worked enough already, and will work no more; the life we live is too bad; it is the life of a dog, we won't be slaves no more, and won't lift hoe no more, we won't take flogging no more"

Morant Bay Rebellion- 1865- Paul Bogle
-vision of black owned business
"wealth is strength, wealth is power, wealth is influence, wealth is justice, is liberty, is real human rights. The system of our world politics suggests such as a fact it is...it is the accumulated wealth of the Blacks that will force him to the front and compel men and nations to think of him in terms of economic justice. All this is achievable through a greater economic expansion"
The Indians couldn't hang on no longer
Here comes black man and woman and children
Inna Jamdown lan' ya
Whole heap o' mix-up, mix-up
A whole heap o' ben' up, ben' up
It haffe straighten out

Christopher Columbus is a damn, blasted liar
Christopher Columbus is a damn, blasted liar
Yes Jah
Why might dance, music, and religion be important in the context of enslavement?
Old pirates, yes, they rob I;
Sold I to the merchant ships,
Minutes after they took I
From the bottomless pit.
But my hand was made strong
By the 'and of the Almighty.
We forward in this generation
Triumphantly.
Won't you help to sing
These songs of freedom? -
'Cause all I ever have:
Redemption songs;
Redemption songs.

Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery;
None but ourselves can free our minds.
Have no fear for atomic energy,
'Cause none of them can stop the time.
How long shall they kill our prophets,
While we stand aside and look? Ooh!
Some say it's just a part of it:
We've got to fulfil de book.
Bob Marley
Redemption Song

competing interpretations of race & nationalism
1. rule by locally-born White-Jamaicans
2. White Jamaicans and African Jamaicans had the same opportunities
Native Baptism/
Ethiopian Baptist Church
-George Liele

-Ethiopianism
Old pirates, yes, they rob I;
Sold I to the merchant ships,
Minutes after they took I
From the bottomless pit.
But my hand was made strong
By the 'and of the Almighty.
We forward in this generation
Triumphantly.
Won't you help to sing
These songs of freedom? -
'Cause all I ever have:
Redemption songs;
Redemption songs.

How do you think being Rastafari may affect Price's research? What are the advantages?
Ethnogenesis
how groups form and change over time
In thinking about the Thomas reading, why is the form of how histories are presented or remembered important?
Orlando Patterson
"slavery is the permanent, violent domination of natally alienated and generally dishonored persons"
"social death"
concept of 'social death' can conceal the way in which those who were enslaved turned their experiences into 'collective forms of belonging and striving, making connections when confronted with alienation and finding dignity in the face of dishonor' (Brown 2009)
using symbolic resources of the past
while point to ways in which past has structured a racialized social hierarchy
not outside of contemporary relations, but constitutive of these relations (Thomas).
"Thus rebellion and protest can signal more than mere reaction; they are ways in which collectivities demonstrate their rights, especially to livelihood and identity"
whereby..
"rebellions and religious practices mutually reinforced each other"
Why Ethiopia?
Great Revival - Bedwardites - 1860
-overthrow colonial rule
-Ethiopia
-possession of Holy Spirit
-Healing ceremonies
Full transcript