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Experimental Study on The Use of Synthetic Jet Actuators for

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Ricardo Torres

on 24 May 2016

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Transcript of Experimental Study on The Use of Synthetic Jet Actuators for

Airfoil Experimental Model
NACA 65(2)-415 airfoil- Common in compressors
Synthetic Jet Actuators
Nuventix Synthetic Jet
Off the shelf CPU cooling
Standard Synthetic Jet
Adjacent slot
Slanted Face Synthetic Jet
Adjacent slot
Airfoil Integrated w/ Synthetic Jet
Adjacent slot
Pressure side injection

Synthetic Jet Actuator Background
Test Equipment
Wind Tunnel Testing of Gas Compressor Blades
Airfoil Experimental Models
Synthetic Jet Actuators
Experimental Setup
Wind Tunnel Testing of Gas Compressor Blade
Experimental Study on The Use of Synthetic Jet Actuators for Lift Control
Baseline Study
2D Validation against XFoil
Force Balance
Particle Image Velocimetry
Sponsored by:
Thesis Defense
M.S. Candidate: Ricardo Torres

Graduate Adviser: Dr. Gustaaf Jacobs
The experimental research is conducted to provide an investigation of lift control on an Inlet Guide Vane, IGV, using synthetic jet actuators for the application inside Solar Turbines gas compressors.
Synthetic Jet Actuator Background
Zero- net mass system
Oscillating diaphragm produces counter rotating vortice jet stream.
Prolong flow separation, multiple studies with normal orifice injection and airfoil suction side leading edge injection.
Vectoring flow,investigation of adjacent slot with airfoil pressure side trailing edge injection.
One of 1st to investigate adjacent orifice Kim 2006
Test Equipment
Actuation Devices
Frequency generator: 1hz - 100 khz
Frequency amplifier: 1 - 1000 volts
Resistors: 1Watt
Force Balance
150 lb Kenney Model six axis strain gage
Overall accuracy 0.1%, 0.15 lb
45 lb ATI mini45 6 axis strain gage
Overall accuracy 0.05%, 0.025 lb
Particle Image Velocimetry , PIV, system
2 Image Pro X 2m cameras
1200 x 1200 pixel resolution
5 hz capture rate
Particle atomizer
Olive oil < 1 micrometer droplet
Adjustable feed rate
Hi-power laser
Dual burst rate of 10 microhertz
Wind Tunnel
Closed Loop Tunnel
Operational since 1962
150 hp 4 blade fan
Max Speed 145 mph
Test Section
45in width, 32 in height, 67 in long
Minor restoration to achieve previous turbulence factor of 1.27 validated with PIV
Test Section Insert
FEMAP used to determine thickness of material
1/2" Plexiglass
3/4" Cabinet Grade Wood
Speed Validation with PIV
78 m/s, 175 mph, increase of 30 mph
30% loss from theoretical calculation
Provide velocity up to M=0.23
Carbon Kevlar Airfoil
Size Parameters
chord = 0.3m , 12 "
span = 0.9m , 36 "

Material Selection for Rapid Prototyping
High Density Foam
Carbon Kevlar
Graphite Powder

Cheap and Quick

CNC Cut Foam

3 Step Layup Process

Tested at 160 mph, 15 alpha
Minor Signs of Vibrations or Flutter
3D Printed Airfoil
Size Parameters
chord = 0.1m , 5 ",
span = 0.48m , 19.25 ",
Integrated 9 Synthetic Jet Cavities

3D Printing Material for Rapid Prototyping
Liquid photo-polymer
UV curing w/ layer thickness 0.1 mm, 0.004" layer

Tested at 120 mph, 15 alpha
Minor Signs of Vibrations or Flutter
Speeds above 130mph show signs of high vibrations
Nuventix Synthetic Jet
span = 60 mm
width = 50 mm
height =30 mm
Built in micro processor
12v input
110 hz operational frequency
Magnetic diaphragm

Frequency at slot exit
Frequency 10mm from slot exit
Velocity vs time at slot exit
Velocity vs time 10 mm from slot exit
Hotwire Anemometer Results using 2000 hz sample rate
Airfoil Integrated w/ Nuventix synjets
Requires large thickness / chord ratio on airfoil
Loss of 29% of trailing edge
Possible 3d print artificial trailing edge
Predefined operational frequency
Cost $ 15 each
Reliable( 100,000 hrs operational time)
Low voltage(12v)
Average slot velocity 12 m/s
Integrated operation circuit
Off the shelf manufacturing
Standard Synthetic Jet
Cavity design based visit from
DR.IR. H.W.M. HOEIJMAKERS, University of Twente
University of Florida
span = 50 mm
width = 57 mm
height = 12 mm
Piezoelectric diaphragm
Variable input frequency
Variable operational frequency
PIV velocity results of test insert section
Center plane results of Velocity and RMS distribution
1200 hz material frequency
1800 hz Helmholtz frequency
a- speed of sound
S- planar area at slot exit
V- Volume of cavity
L - Neck length of slot
3D printed
Carbon Kevlar
Standard Synthetic Jet Results
PIV instantaneous velocity contours of synthetic jet max velocity 26 m/s
PIV average velocity contours of synthetic jet average velocity 16 m/s
11 frame instantaneous velocity development of synthetic jet at slot exit
Centerline velocity of synthetic jet vs distance from slot exit
Integrated Synthetic Jet
span = 50 mm
width = 47 mm
height = 7 mm
30 deg slant
Provides flow along slant direction
PIV average velocity field results of RMS between synthetic jet off and on, slot located at x=0 y=0.
Integration within a 5 " airfoil
A snapshot of the particle flow field showing the recirculation zone behind integrated synthetic jet slot near trailing edge at 70 Vpp 1450 hz, Re=0.
Experimental Setup
2D wind tunnel blockage determined as
Design greater than 5 in chord needs blockage correction
Determined lift based on constant
Cl= 0.4
U= 100 mph
For 2D testing a minimum s/c = 3 must be maintained
Experimental model and test matrix
Results Baseline Study
Convergence for increasing sample rate
Comparison of multiple airfoil non dimensional results to XFoil

Correction used for blockage and lift to drag interaction
Results - Force Balance
Results - Force Balance
Slanted Synthetic Jet
PIV Results
PIV Results
Synthetic Jet reduces drag at increasing angles of attack.

The flow is shown to vector downward.

Extra momentum is added to the flow using bottom side injection.

At negative angles the extra momentum decreases lift and decreases drag.
[Optimization of a rectangular orifice synthetic jet generator]
Acoustic Streaming
Thank you,

Dr. Gustaaf Jacobs
Dr. Nagy Nosseir
Dr. Fletcher Miller
Bernhard Winkelmann, Solar Turbines
Michael Cave , Solar Turbines
DR.IR. H.W.M. HOEIJMAKERS, University of Twente
Ramon Guerra, B.S. Aerospace Engineering

and Sponsors
U = 13m/s
Full transcript