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Revolutions of 1830 and 1848

What were the main causes of the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 across Europe? Use 3 different countries.

Samantha Washell

on 17 December 2012

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Transcript of Revolutions of 1830 and 1848

Revolutions in France What were the main causes of the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 across Europe? Restored Louis XVIII to the French throne Government Set up By Radicals With no king, different people had diverse ideas on the ideal form of the next French Government Louis XVII issued issued a constitution, the charter of French Liberties
This created a two-house legislature and allowed limited freedom of the press
His brother, Charles X inherited the throne when Louis XVIIII died in 1824 Charles was a strong believer in absolutionism and rejected the idea of the charter
During the summer of 1830, Charles limited people's rights to vote, suspended the legislature, and restricted press
Liberals and radicals responded violently; they threw up barricades in the streets of Paris, they fired on and pelted soldiers with stones
Rebels controlled Paris just after a few days
Charles X fled to England Charles X Revolutions In Belgium -Radicals wanted to set up a republic
-Moderate liberals wanted a constitutional monarchy
-The Chamber of Deputies then chose Louis Philippe as King Louis Philippe "Citizen King" Revolution Spreads -The spirit of revolution spread from Paris to other countries -Got along well with liberal bourgeoisie
-Liberal politicians and professionals filled his government
-Upper bourgeoisie prospered
-Extended suffrage (only to wealthier citizens)
-Most people could not vote
-Middle class was favored in some topics
-Workers were not as favored -These revolts scared the governments so in 1815 the Congress of Vienna united the Austrian Netherlands (present-day Belgium) and the Kingdom of Holland. They hoped this unification would provide a strong barrier to prevent French expansion. Louis Napoleon Revolution in Belgium -Discontent started to occur in 1840
-Radicals formed secret societies that worked for a French republic
-Utopian socialists wanted an end for private ownership of property
-Liberals also weren't happy with the government and called for greater suffrage
-Recession then caused a great increase in discontent
-Factories were shutting down, people were let go from their jobs and had no income
-Bread costs rose -The Belgians did not like the unification with Holland -Different languages, religions, and economic interests led to conflicts with the Dutch
-News of Paris revolutions in 1830 led to the spark of revolutions in Belgium -The Dutch king called on other European powers for help with the revolts, but the other countries
believed they would all benefit from the
separation of Holland and Belgium February Success for Belgium -France and England supported the separation of Belgium and Holland -Austria, Russia and Prussia were busy with stopping revolutions in their own countries to help the Dutch king -Therefore, in 1831, Belgium won its independence and became a state with a liberal constitution -The government tried to silence critics and prevent meetings although they were not successful
-Crowds of angry citizens collected in the streets
-Iron railings, overturned carts, paving stones and trees blocked the streets of Paris
-Churches rang their bells
-Citizens on the barricades sang "La Marseillaise"
-Many were killed when they were encountered by troops
-Louis Philippe left Paris, and a group of liberal, radical, and socialist leaders proclaimed the Second Republic
-Great differences divided this government
-Liberals wanted moderate political reforms
-Socialists wanted social and economic change that would aid workers
-Socialists forced government to set up workshops to provide jobs for those who didn't have jobs/source of income Revolutions in Germany June -During this period in June, the upper and middle classes had won control of the government
-They shut down the national workshops
-Workers protested this act in the streets shouting "Bread or Lead!"
-Bourgeois liberals fought back violently and at least 1,500 people faced death and casualties Louis Philippe; "Citizen King" -By 1848, the National Assembly (controlled by those people who wished to restore order)
-National Assembly issued a constitution for the Second Republic that created a strong president, and one-house legislature
-Under this new constitution, all adult men could vote
-When elections were held for the new President, Louis Napoleon won by many votes
-Louis Napoleon was able to attract the working classes by explaining he cared about poverty and other social issued
-His famous name (he was a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte) helped him gain votes and support from conservatives
-Once he obtained his position in office, he declared himself as emperor, taking the title Napoleon III, which ended the Second Republic
-About 90% of voters supported his move to create the Second Empire
-Economic growth occurred
-The early days of the Second Empire brought prosperity and contentment
-Later however, he would bring down the French empire so that it would no longer lead Europe Europe What were the main causes of these Revolutions? -Congress of Vienna
-Different groups of people wanting different types of government
-Weak and selfish kings
-Economic decline
-Decrease in food production
-Social unrest
-Large gaps between social classes
-People gaining nationalist and liberal points of view Revolution Spreads -news of more revolutions in Paris in 1848 led to cries for revolution in German states -the Congress of Vienna had broken up the German area into 38 different states (referred to as the German Confederation), Austria and Prussia the two largest states and the rest smaller The Frankfurt Assembly -In 1848, so many people were calling for change that the German states created a Parliament called the Frankfurt Assembly -their goal was to fulfill the nationalist and liberal dream and to create a constitution for a united Germany -although a constitution was written by the Frankfurt Assembly, the Assembly had no way to enforce the new system and ultimately failed
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