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New Zealand 1800 - 1840
Transcript of New Zealand 1800 - 1840
Maori Explorers Abel Tasman
1642 James Cook
1769 de Surville
1769 Fur Seals
Flax In 1788 Britain established its new Penal Colony at Botany Bay. Sydney based traders saw a chance to exploit the Fur Seal and the first Gang arrived in Dusky Sound in 1792. Some Maori saw little value in the Pakeha and some gangs were killed and eaten. (James Caddell) Sealers had little impact on Maori apart from those in the far south, notably Southland and the Foveaux Strait region. By 1812 the Fur Seal population was no longer viable and the industry disappeared. BLACK OIL In 1799 the first whaling ships arrived. Whale blubber supplied Black Oil which lubricated the Industrial Revolution and lit the streets of their cities. Bay of Islands:
KORORAREKA In 1806 the Whalers began to call into the Bay of Islands and in particular the small village of Kororareka. Local Maori Ngapuhi quickly realized the value of this opportunity. EXPLORERS
Guns Utu Samuel Marsden The Church Missionary Society (CMS) was the Evangelical wing of the Anglican Church and was charged with conversion of native peoples throughout the Empire.
In Port Jackson it was led by Samuel Marsden. In 1806 Marsden met Ruatara a Ngapuhi chief. Frustrated at his lack of success with Aboriginals Marsden saw Maori as more suitable candidates for conversion The Good Book Marsden sent Kendall Hall & King who proved to be poor choices. Internal bickering and a lack of trade goods meant there was little value in Missionaries. Maori like Hongi saw little appeal in Christianity. Their own values and beliefs remained strong into the 1820's However having a Missionary did attract other Pakeha who provided the goods and Mana that Ngapuhi desired. A new Religion Ships Captains needed food water and repairs.Their crews wanted rest & recreation. This involved alcohol & sex Local Ngapuhi quickly learnt to trade for the things the pakeha wanted. Soon the trade centred on the trade for Muskets. Treaty Ngapuhi chief Hongi Hika saw an opportunity to seek revenge against various tribes who had offended him Hika had lost female relatives during the visit of the Venus in 1806 In 1818 Hika and Pomare led a large Taua on an 18 month campaign against southern tribes Hika returned with thousands of prisoners and hundreds of head. he claimed to have destroyed 500 Pa or Kainga. This set the pattern for the next 25 years In 1814 Marsden brought the CMS to NZ Other tribes began to compete to acquire Muskets. At first for protection later to allow them conquest or utu of their own Johnny Jones was one who did settle and prospered.Intermediaries like Jones traded with local Ngai Tahu including muskets. His journals showed where NZ was. Cooks journals noted the presence of naval supplies, seals and whales. He also noted how cooperative, albeit martial the Maori were. De Survilles arrival 2 weeks after Cook began the hysteria some felt towards the french Hongi accompanied Kendall to GB in 1820 Hongi sold his gifts to buy Muskets In order to defend themselves and their resources Maori developed the Gunfighter Pa Between 1818 and 1840 20,00 Maori were killed and another 20,00 enslaved or displaced. Iwi which profited included Ngapuhi and Ngati Toa. Iwi which sufferd included Ngati Whatua (Auckland) and Moriori (Chathams) By the 1830's hundreds of ships were calling into Kororareka every year. Traders and Maori exploited this situation. With no laws the Town became known for its lawlessness. Hongi Used the Missionaries to access trade. This trade gave him great material wealth and mana amongst his friends and enemies. Hika saw no value in Christianity, allowing slaves to attend schools. In 1829 Hika died. Maori who felt that the foreign Atua offered more began to suddenly convert. Missionaries could sometimes cure disease or at least offer comfort supported
by prayer. With new found influence Missionaries changed Maori Society
In 1823 Henry Williams arrived to replace Kendall. He changed the focus from civilise to simply conversion. In 1826 his brother William arrived. By 1840 30,000 Maori had converted to one of the Christian faiths.