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Rizal’s Second Sojourn in Paris and the Universal Exposition

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Florence de la Rosa

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Transcript of Rizal’s Second Sojourn in Paris and the Universal Exposition

Rizal’s Second Sojourn in Paris
and the Universal Exposition of 1890

Published Morga’s Sucesos
Founded 3 Filipino societies
The Kidlat Club
Indios Bravos
R.D.L.M
Wrote Por Telefono
Difficulty of Finding Quarters
Valentin Ventura
No. 45 Rue Maubeuge
Polished Morga’s book
Transferred his residence several times
Captain Justo Trinidad & Jose Albert

Bibliotheque Nationale
Check up his historical annotation o Morga’s book
Living quarters
Writing letters to family and friends
Gymnasium
Daily physical exercises; visit friends
Spare hours
Dine at homes of his friends
Padre de Taveras
Dr. Trinidad
Dr. Felix
Paz (wife of Juan Luna)
Venturas
Bousteads
Luna’s etc.
Baptismal Godfather to a baby girl of Paz Pardo de Tavera and Juan luna born on June 24, 1889
Chose the name “Maria de la Paz, Blanca, Laureana, Hermenegilda Juana Luna y Pardo de Tavera”
“My daily life in Paris is spent in the following manner: one or two hours in the gymnasium and in fencing, three or four hours in the library, the rest I use up in writing and visiting friends... Every other night from 8:00 to 11:00 we meet in a cafe where we play chess. On Saturdays I am invited to eat at Luna's house, on Sundays at Mrs. Juliana's, and on Fridays I visit the family of Boustead (also a Filipino) where sometimes I take tea.”
- in his letter to his family in Calamba dated May 16, 1889…
“We Filipinos gather four times a week and we sing the kundiman, we eat sotanghon, adobo, etc. On wednesdays in the house of Doña Tula, on Thursdays in the house of Hidalgo, on Fridays in the house of Madam Boustead, on Saturdays in the house of Luna, on Sundays in the house of Doña Juliana.”
- in his letter to his family in Calamba dated September 21, 1889...
Rizal and Paris Exposition of 1889
Opened on May 6, 1889
Greatest attraction – Eiffel Tower (984 ft. high by Alexander Eiffel, celebrated French Engineer)
Rizal and his friends attended the openning ceremonies and saw the cutting of the ribbon by President Sadi Carnot (3rd French Republic)
Daily, it drew a vast crowd of 200,000 persons or more.
International art competition
Felix R. Hidalgo (painting - second prize),
Juan Luna & Felix Pardo de Tavera (painting - third prize)
Rizal (no prize)


March 19, 1889
Members: Antonio and Juan Luna, Gregorio Aguilera, Fernando Canon, Lauro Dimayuga, Julio Llorente, Guillermo Puatu, and Baldomero Roxas
Purely a society of a temporary nature
To bring together the young Filipinos in the French capital so that they could enjoy their sojourn in the city during the duration of the Universal Exposition

“Today we have formed a Kidlat Club. Kidlat in Tagalog means lightning, as this club will last only during the Exposition. We have thought of it and formed it in one hour. It will disappear also like lightning.”

Indios Bravos
New society of Filipino patriots in Paris
Buffalo show which featured American Indians
replaced the ephemeral Kidlat Club
Members pledge to excel in intellectual & physical prowess (in order to win admiration of foreigner – Spaniards)
Practised the use of sword & pistol
Rizal taught them judo (Asian art of self-defense)

Has a symbol or countersign represented by a circle divided into three parts by two semi-circles having in the center the interlocked letters I and B meaning Indios Bravos, and the letters R.D.L.M. placed outside an upper, lower, left and right sides of the circle.

R.D.L.M. Society
R.D.L.M. – Redencion de los Malayos (Redemption of the Malays)
Gregorio Aguilera, Jose Ma. Basa, Julio Llorente, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, Baldomero Roxas, & Father Jose Maria Changco (Filipino priest)

Aim as stated by Rizal: “the propagation of all useful knowledge – scientific, artistic, literary, etc. – in the Philippines”
Another aim
Redemption of the Malay race
Max Havelaar (1860) by Multatuli (E. D. Dekker’s pseudonym, Dutch)
Exposed miserable conditions of the oppressed Malay inhabitants of the Netherlands East Indies under Dutch rule.



Annotated Edition of Morga Published



Publication in 1890 was his outstanding achievement in Paris
Printed by Garnier Freres
Prologue by Professor Blumentritt
Best of the many histories of the Philippines written by the early Spanish writers, being accurate in the narration of events, unbiased in judgement, and unmarred by childish fantasies.
He dedicated his new edition of Morga to the Filipino people so that they would know of their glorious past

He proved that the Filipinos were already civilized before the advent of Spain.
They had clothes, government, laws, writing, literature, religion, arts, sciences and commerce with neighboring Asian nations.
He blasted the historical heresies of the Spanish writers who claimed that the early Filipinos were savages and were of low mentality

Rizal as Historian
Historical commentaries: Ma-yi and Tawalisi of Ibn Batuta
Filipinas dentro deCien Años
The Philippines Within a Century
Sobre la Indolencia de los Filipinos
The Indolence of the Filipinos
La Politica Colonial on Filipinas
Colonial Policy in the Philippines
Manila en el mes de Diciembre, 1872
Manila in the month of December, 1872
Historia de la Familia Rizal de Calamba
History of the Rizal family of Calamba
Los Pueblos del Archipielago Indico
The Peoples of the Indian Archipelago


The Indolence of the Filipinos (Causes)




1. The native revolts and the other internal disorders which followed the establishment of Spanish rule

2. The wars which the Filipinos fought for Spain against the Dutch, Portuguese, English and other enemies

3. The frightful raids on the coastal towns and village of Christian Philippines by the Muslim pirates of Mindanao and Sulu

4. The forced labor, which compelled thousands of Filipino laborers to work in shipyards, roads, bridges, and other public works, resulting in the abandonment of industry, commerce and agriculture

5. Lack of stimulus to work harder because the people could not enjoy the fruits of their labor

6. Government neglect and indifference to agriculture, commerce and industry

7. The bad example shown by the Spaniards on despising manual labor

8. The teaching of the Spanish missionaries

9. Encouragement and propagation of gambling by the Spanish authorities

10. System of Spanish education did not promote the economic enterprise and activity





International Association of Filipinologists


August 1889 (Paris) – scheduled holding of the inaugural convention

Renowned scholars in Europe:
- Dr. Reinhold Rost
- Sir Henry Yule
- Dr. Feodor Jagor
- Dr. A.B. Meyer
- Dr. H. Kern
- Dr. Czepelak

Aim: “To study the Philippines from the scientific and historical point of view.”

President Dr. Ferdinand Blumentrit
(Austrian)
Vice-President Mr. Edmund Plauchut
(French)
Counsellor Dr. Reinhold Rost
(Anglo-German)
Counsellor Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor
(Filipino-Spanish)
Secretsry Dr. Jose Rizal
(Filipino)





Project for
Filipino College
in Hong Kong



To establish a modern college in Hong Kong
Aim: “to train and educate men of good family and financial means in accordance with the demands of modern times and circumstances”
Mr. Mariano Cunanan (Mexico, Pampanga)
- 40,000 pesos (initial capital)
“POR TELEFONO”

Rizal wrote another satirical work entitled “POR TELEFONO” as a reply to another slanderer, Fr. Salvador Font, who masterminded the banning of his Noli.

It is also published in booklet form in Barcelona,1889. Rizal received the printed copies from Mariano Ponce, as revealed by his letter to the latter,dated Paris, Aug. 13, 1889

Christmas in Paris

Rizal and Jose Albert, who were living in a small room occupied by Capitan Justo Trinidad
Christmas dinner: fried chicken, rice, and vegetables
Rizal’s last Christmas dinner in Paris
After New Year – brief visit to London (unknown purpose)
Two theoretical reasons:
To check up his annotated edition of Morga’s Sucesos with the original copy in the British Museum; and
To see Gertrude Beckett for the last time
Middle of January 1890 – back in Paris


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