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Chapter 7: Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism
Transcript of Chapter 7: Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism
By 1837, many of the banks Jackson had put money in during the bank fight had failed.
This helped cause the
Panic of 1837
During this time, many banks closed and people lost their savings. As a result the country sank into a depression (series of economic failures)
In the 1840 election, Van Buren lost to the Whig candidate
What was the
Panic of 1837?
Jackson did not like the second national bank – the
Bank of the United States
(BUS) in Philadelphia.
Jackson viewed the bank as an agent of the wealthy and elite—a group he deeply distrusted.
Jackson tried to shut the bank down by taking money out of it and putting it in other banks.
SOL (Question) – Eagles flying out of bank carrying money bags.
Jackson’s actions angered many people. They thought the president had become too powerful.
How did Jackson
destroy the National Bank?
Calhoun believed the South had the
right to disobey the tariff based on the
principle of nullification. This principle
said that states could nullify federal laws that
they felt were unconstitutional.
He also believed that if the government forbid a state from nullifying a federal law, that state had the right to leave the Union.
In 1830, the Senate debated the tariff and the issue of nullification.
opposed states’ efforts to nullify a
Jackson’s vice-president was John C.
Calhoun of South Carolina.
The two opposed each other over the Tariff of 1816.
This was a tax that increased the price of foreign-
made goods. By 1825, it had been raised twice.
Calhoun supported the tariff at first, but her came
to oppose it.
He called it a
Tariff of Abominations
because he believed that it hurt the
What is the principle
However, the Cherokee Nation fought
the Indian Removal Act in the Supreme
Supreme Court Justice Marshall ruled in favor of the Cherokee.
The court said that the U.S. had no right to take the Cherokee land.
Andrew Jackson refused to obey the Court’s decision. Instead, federal agents signed a treaty
with a group of Cherokee leaders that were willing to leave their land.
By the early 1800’s, some Native American
groups in the Southeast began accepting the culture
of their white neighbors.
The Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminole, Creek, and Chickasaw were
called the Five Civilized Tribes.
Despite this, white settlers did
not want to live with Native
The settlers wanted the Native
American land for farming.
President Jackson decided to remove the Native Americans from their lands.
What was the Trail of Tears?
Andrew Jackson seemed to appeal to many new voters. When he ran again in 1828, these voters supported him. With their help, he won the election by a landslide.
Jackson also appealed to the common people. This
brought massive crowds of people to Washington
for his inauguration.
Jackson wanted common people to have a chance
to participate in government.
Once in office he removed about 10% of federal
workers from their jobs and gave these jobs to friends and loyal supporters.
Jackson’s New Presidential Style
The issue of slavery made the process of
becoming a new state rather difficult.
In order to keep the North and South at peace, Congress tried to keep an even number of slave & free states.
In 1819, Missouri asked to enter the union. At this time, the nation consisted of 11 free states and 10 slave states. Southerners expected Missouri to become the 11th slave
The House of Representatives passed a state-
hood bill that would allow Missouri to
gradually free its slaves.
What was the Missouri Compromise?
Internationally, Secretary of State J
established a foreign policy that was based
is the belief that national
interests as a whole should be more
important than what one region wants.
By 1819, most Americans assumed that
Florida (Spain) would eventually become
part of the United States. Settlers began
moving to Florida on their own.
Adams finally convinced the Spanish minister to the U.S.
that Spain should give up Florida before impatient
Americans simply seized it.
What is nationalism?
In 1815, President Madison presented a
unification plan to Congress.
It called for establishing tariffs. It also
called for strengthening the national bank.
In addition, the plan promoted the development of national
Many members of Congress, including the Speaker of the House,
, supported the plan.
Clay called the plan the
. (Clay’s plan for economic development)
The American System
Farmers in the North began to raise livestock &
crops for sale so they could buy goods made in Northern factories.
A market economy developed. A market economy is an economy in which manufacturing and agriculture support the growth of each other.
Due to manufacturing, the
North did not depend on
However, the South’s
economy had long been
based on agriculture.
The changes in manufacturing brought about an
This was the name given to the massive changes to both the economy and society that resulted from the growth of the factory system.
Industrialization in America took place mainly in the New England states because farming was difficult in New England. As a result, people were more willing to manufacture goods.
By the 1800’s, the production of goods had moved from small workshops to large factories that used machines.
This change was partly due to
In 1798, he found a way to make goods using
. These parts were standardized and could be used in place of one another.
In factories, power-driven machinery
and many laborers made mass
is the production of goods in large
Two Economic Systems Develop
Balancing Nationalism & Sectionalism
Harrison died from pneumonia, after
only 1 month in office.
His vice-president, John
Tyler became president.
However, Tyler did not
agree with many of the
Therefore, the party was unable to enact many of its programs.
As a result, these people formed a new political party known as the
It was formed in 1834 to oppose policies of Jackson and limit the power of the presidency.
Congress passed the new tariff in
1832. South Carolina declared it invalid
and threatened to secede, or leave the Union.
Jackson was furious and
threatened to send troops
to make South Carolina obey
Henry Clay worked out a compromise with
South Carolina that kept them in the Union.
State’s Rights and the National Bank
In October and November of 1838, U.S.
army troops began forcing the Cherokee to
travel from Georgia to the new Indian territory
located west of the Mississippi.
The 800-mile trip was made partly by steamboat & railroad,
but mainly by foot.
As winter approached, more and more Cherokee died. Government official stole the Cherokees’ money and outlaws took their livestock.
This journey became known as the
Trail of Tears
because more than a quarter of the travelers died on it.
Congress passed the
Indian Removal Act
This law ordered all Native Americans to move west
of the Mississippi River.
Jackson then pressured the Chocktaw to sign a treaty that required them to move from Mississippi.
He then ordered U.S. troops to use force to remove the Sauk and Fox from their land in Missouri & Illinois.
In 1832, he forced the Chickasaw to move from their lands in Alabama and Mississippi.
Jackson also replaced his cabinet with his
These advisors were known as his “kitchen cabinet” because they supposedly slipped into the White House through the kitchen.
The practice by incoming political parties of removing old workers and replacing them with their supporters is known as the
. It comes from an old saying that in war “to the victor belong the spoils of the enemy.”
, a(later became the 7th President) hero from the War of 1812, ran for president against John Quincy Adams in 1824.
Neither candidate received a majority of electoral votes and the House of Representatives had to decide.
Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, disliked Jackson and used his influence to help Adams win.
Jackson & his supporters accused Adams of stealing the election.
They formed their own party, the
They attacked Adams’ policies for the
next 4 years.
What led to the formation of
the Democratic-Republican Party?
The Age of Jackson
This protected the balance between slave
& free states.
In addition, the rest of the Louisiana Purchase was divided into free & slave territory.
South of the dividing line, slavery was legal.
North of the dividing line, slavery was prohibited.
The dividing line was located at 36˚ 30˚ N Latitude.
Southerners saw this as a threat
and blocked the passage of the bill in the
After Alabama was admitted as a slave state, the
debate over Missouri became very heated.
If Missouri was admitted, that would mean that it
would tip the scales in favor of either free or slave
Henry Clay crafted a series of agreements known
Under this compromise, Maine was
admitted as a free state and Missouri
was admitted as a slave state.
Spain responded by handing Florida to the
U.S. in the
Spain also gave up all claims it had to the Oregon Territory in the treaty.
In 1823, President James Monroe warned Europeans
not to interfere with anyone in the Americas.
While in return, the U.S. would stay out of
European affairs. This became known
Two significant Supreme Court decision led to
the strengthening of the federal government:
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
– denied Maryland the right to tax the Bank of the United States. It ruled that states cannot pass laws that end up overturning laws passed by Congress.
Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824) – ruled that Congress, not the states, had the power to regulate interstate trade.
The Supreme Court
Boosts National Power
Nationalism at Center Stage
Most people in the North supported the
tariff while the South and West opposed it.
However, people from all
strengthening the national
A national bank would
provide a national currency.
In 1816, Congress voted to set up the Second
Bank of the United States.
In 1811, the government began building
to carry settlers west.
This road was federally funded.
The road started in Cumberland, Maryland and ended
in Vandalia, Illinois.
While the government was working on the National
Road, the states also improved their own transportation systems.
New York built the
, which connected the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean.
Madison proposed the
Tariff of 1816
as part of the plan
The tariff would increase the cost of
foreign-made goods and make American
goods more attractive.
In 1793, Eli Whitney helped to further promote
agriculture by inventing the
The machine helped to clean
the cotton and increased cotton
production, which led to the
establishment of large cotton
In turn, larger plantations
meant more laborers were
As a result, the number of slaves in the
South nearly doubled from 700,000
to 1,200,000 by the mid 1800’s.
Regional Economies Create Differences