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Intellectual Disabilities

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Erin Monsma

on 22 October 2013

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Transcript of Intellectual Disabilities

Intellectual Disabilities
Co-occurring Disabilities
Across the spectrum, persons with ID's show more co-occurring conditions than the rest of the population
As one proceeds down the scale of disabilities, the incidence of co-occurring conditions increases
40% of children with Down Syndrome have congenital heart defects
What does it mean to have an intellectual disability?
Different regions and social classes show different prevalence rates
Lower socio-economic brackets
Somewhere between 5 to 10 times as many boys as girls are considered to be mildly intellectually disabled
Different age groups show different prevalence figures
Low in preschool years
Increases dramatically during school years
Declines after school

There are 3 major goals in the education of students with intellectual disabilities
1. Productivity
2. Independence
3. Participation
To accomplish these goals, students are instructed in the areas of academic, social, self-help, community living, and vocational skills
No surgical procedures or miracle drugs are known to improve Intellectual ability
In general, medical intervention attempts to prevent or correct the organic causes rather than alleviate the condition itself
More families are seeking surgery to improve children's speech and looks
People with severe disabilities are more likely than most others in society to receive medication to change their behaviour
Students who are mildly Intellectually Disabled accomplish about 2/3 of what other children will accomplish
Children with mild Intellectual Disabilities struggle most with reading and language arts along with math and arithmetic
Children who are severely disabled experience major challenges to successful adaptation, nevertheless, learning is possible
In general, students with ID's are not well accepted by their typical peers and often have trouble making friends
They are frequently the subject of teasing
They have difficulties with social perception

What was your experience with peers in your school with Intellectual Disabilities?
Names throughout
the years:
Intellectual Disability
Cognitive Disability
Mental Retardation
Intellectually Challenged
Developmental Disability

1. What do you know about Intellectual Disabilities?
2. What is your experience with children or adults with intellectual disabilities?
3. What challenges have you faced with regards to people with intellectual disabilities?
Table Discussions:
Genetic Defects
Williams Syndrome
Prader-Willi Syndome

Infections and Intoxicants
Pediatric AIDS/HIV

Gross Brain Disease
Chromosomal Abnormalities
Down Syndrome
Fragile X Syndrome

Environmental Influences
Sensory Deprivation

Metabolism or Nutrition
Tay-Sachs Disease
Hunter's Disease
Developmental Consequences
Varies from mild differences to severe differences based on the intellectual disabilities
For example:
Severe case of Down Syndrome to a mild case of FASD
People with ID's acquire language more slowly than others
Their language levels below those of non-disabled children
Children with Intellectual Disorders show a high rate of behavioural disorders compared to peers
Between 7-18% have co-occurring ADHD
Children with low intelligence abilities have difficulties learning needed skills for non-aggressive problem solving
By definition, intellectual disability equates with deficiencies in cognitive development
Impaired or incomplete mental development
Intellectual disabilities is quantitative rather than qualitative
Pass through the same cognitive developmental stages in the same order; they simply pass through the stages more slowly and maintain lower levels of achievement
Learning and Memory
The most specific consequences of intellectual disability involve its effects on an individuals potential to learn and progress academically
Individuals with intellectual disabilities basically learn in the same fashion as other people but they confront serious difficulties in all aspects of intellectual funtioning
Use small group teaching for practice and feedback
Be honest, but liberal, with praise
Use many instructional scaffolds
Use thematic projects that allow children to pursue their interests
Reward effort rather than ability

Provide supplementary content written to a lower level than the textbook
Teach specific learning strategies and strategies to improve memory, such as mnemonics
Use POSSE to assist reading comprehension (Predict ideas, Organize the ideas, Search for structure, Summarize the main ideas, Evaluate)
Extend time to complete tests and assignments
Accept keyword responses in place of complete sentences
Use tape recorded material
Works Cited
Paper Resources:
Winzer, M. (2008). Children with exceptionalities in Canadian classrooms. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall.

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