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The Albany Movement

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Stephen Kevan

on 6 November 2013

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Transcript of The Albany Movement

The Albany Movemeant
by Steve, Swav, Sher and big Al

The Albany Movement began in 1961 and ended in 1962.

It was the first mass movement in the modern civil rights era to have as its goal the desegregation of an entire community, and it resulted in the jailing of more than 1,000 African Americans in Albany and
surrounding rural counties.
Who was Involved?
Lessons Learned
The Albany Movement
They mobilized students at the Albany State College of Georgia in November 1961 to begin a seriesof demonstrations
What changed?
The bus station was desegeregated
A few more blacks were registered to vote.

Outcome
Causes
Despite segregation being declared unconstitutional and out-lawed segregation still existed on buses in Albany
The movement was led by Dr
Wiliam G Anderson
What stayed the same?
Albany was recognised as a major defeat by the civil rights movement and many of the public services etc. remained segregated.. Also many places were forced to close (eg. the swimming pool).
The Role Of Martin Luther King
Events
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Over a thousand arrests were made in December 1961 in Albany. In retaliation a boycott began
.
The police arrested students with limited force to reduce media attention, Chief Officer Prichet even joined King in public prayers! This meant Washingto nwas reluctant to get involved
Desegregation was not achieved, and parks were actually closed, all chairs were moved from the desegregated library. The campaign had failed to create a situation in which the federal authorities had to act.

It showed the need for co-operation between the civil rights groups.

It taught King to prepare more carefully to assure clear-cut confrontations that would pressure federal government into making a strong response.

The SNCC joined up the NAACP and formed the Albany movement to challenge Jim Corw laws, job discrimination, police brutality and segregation
Non-violent demonstrations such as occupying bus stations, libraries and lunch counters reserved for whites
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP)
Local Activists
William G. Anderson
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Before the campaign, King and the SCLC had been criticized by the SNCC, they felt he had not fully supported the freedom rides of that summer. The day after MLK first visited (December 14, 1961), he was swept up in a mass arrest of peaceful demonstrators, and he declined bail until the city made concessions.
King returned in July 1962, and was sentenced to forty-five days in jail or a $178 fine. He chose jail. Three days into his sentence, Chief Pritchett arranged for King's fine to be paid and ordered his release.
After nearly a year of intense activism with few tangible results, the movement began to deteriorate. King requested a halt to all demonstrations and a "Day of Penance" to promote non-violence and maintain the moral high ground. Later in July, King was again arrested and held for two weeks. Following his release, King left town.
Hundreds of protesters marched on city hall
King visited Albany on 14th December 1961 then returned in July 1962 only to be arrested and senctence to 45 days in jail
King left in August 1962 and the movement quickly deteriorated
Significance
It taught King to make clear-cut confrontations that would pressure the federal government into a response which he did in Birmingham campaign a year later
Thought to be a failure by many
Showed divisions between civil rights groups such as the NAACP, SNCC and the SCLC
Succeed or Fail?
Although the Albany movement mobilized thousands of citizens and attracted national attention it failed to accomplish its goals due to a determined opposition.
However it was credited as a key lesson in strategy and tactics for national civil rights movements.
Full transcript