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AP European History Ch. 12-16
Transcript of AP European History Ch. 12-16
The “Glorious Revolution” was Parliament’s expulsion of James and was guaranteed by a Bill of Rights passed by Parliament. The Bill guaranteed the independence of the judiciary, the sole power of Parliament to make laws, and freedom of debate in Parliament. All Protestants were granted religious toleration.
The Glorious Revolution was not a democratic revolution, though, because few English subjects could vote in the election of Parliament.
The cabinet system of government evolved in the eighteenth century. In this system a cabinet of ministers responsible primarily to Parliament governed. The power of the monarch continued to grow weaker. Constitutionalism cont. When James II (r. 1685-1688), an open Catholic, succeeded Charles II, James placed many Catholics in high administrative positions and declared universal religious tolerance. Seven Anglican bishops responded by refusing to read James’s proclamation. They were arrested but acquitted.
When James’s wife produced a son, there was fear that a Catholic dynasty was now assured. Parliament offered the throne to James’s Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, Prince William of Orange. In December 1688 James fled to France and William and Mary were crowned king and queen of England. Constitutionalism Cont. Puritanical Absolutism in England: Cromwell and the Protectorate
England became a military dictatorship run by Parliament’s most successful general, Oliver Cromwell in 1649
Oliver Cromwell attempted to create a community of puritanical saints.
When he died in 1658, most English had had enough of this.
The Restoration of the English Monarchy
Charles II (r. 1660-1685) was invited back to England from exile in France, and attempted to conciliate Parliament by creating an advisory council of five men who were also members of Parliament.
When Charles was caught in 1670 in secret negotiations with Louis XIV for subsidies in exchange for Catholicization of England and an alliance against the Netherlands, panic swept England. Constitutionalism cont Absolutist Claims in England (1603–1649)
Despite the bloody seventeenth century, England became a constitutional monarchy.
Elizabeth I’s successor James I (ruled from 1603–1625) asserted his “divine right to absolute power”, angering the Parliament.
The House of Commons, whose members were part of a new wealthy and powerful capitalist class in England, objected. Constitutionalism French Classicist Art Louis XIV
Court at Versailles, symbol of absolutism
French language and culture became fashionable at courts all over Europe.
Louis used court ceremonies, entertainments, spies, and informers to reduce the power of the great nobility.
Staffed his administration with the noblesse de robe
Revoked the Edict of Nantes because he saw it as a threat to his power. Religious toleration was not to be permanent. This hurt the economy and foreign affairs.
Financial problems weakened Louis XIV’s administration.
Louis’s chief financial minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, used subsidies for domestic industries, tariffs, and policies to attract foreign artisans in order to make France self-sufficient and to boost French exports (mercantilism).
Louis was at war 33 of the 54 years of his personal rule. Absolutism in France cont. The vast majority of seventieth-century Europeans lived in the countryside.
Bread was the primary element of most people’s diet.
Rural society lived on the edge of subsistence. Poor weather put additional stress on agriculture and industry.
Peasants and the urban poor were hit hardest by bad harvests and economic depression.
Many people died because of diseases brought on by malnutrition and exhaustion. The already weakened populations were susceptible to bubonic plague outbreaks which continued until the 1720s. Economic and Demographic Crisis Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe, ca 1589-1715 Chapter 16 With the Europeans’ discovery of the Americas and their exploration of the Pacific, the entire world was linked for the first time in history by seaborne trade. This trade brought into being three successive commercial empires: the Portuguese, the Spanish, and the Dutch.
The world experienced a commercial boom from about 1570 to 1630. Birth of a Global Economy Portugal led the expansion, seeking to Christianize Muslims, import gold from West Africa, find an overseas route to India to obtain Indian spices, and contact the mythical Christian ruler of Ethiopia, Prester John.
Prince Henry the Navigator (1394–1460) played a leading role in the early phases of Portuguese exploration. He had supported the study of geography and navigation and would sponsor annual expeditions down the western coast of Africa.
In 1487, Bartholomew Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip but was forced to turn back because of storms.
In 1497, Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape and sailed up the east coast of Africa. The Portuguese Overseas Empire Africa had played an important role in the world trade system before Columbus.
The Mameluke Egyptian empire was one of the powerful in Africa. Its capital, Cairo had been a center for Islamic learning and religious authority as well as a hub for Indian Ocean trade goods, which the Mamelukes helped to re-orient.
Africa had also contributed gold to world trade. In the 15th century, most of the gold that reached Europe came from Africa
Mansa Musa, king of the kingdom of Mali, underscores the links between West Africa and the Muslim world in this period. He had performed pilgrimage to Mecca.
Slaves were another important object of trade. Slavery had been practiced in Africa. West African slaves were taken to be sold to Europe. World Contacts Before Columbus (Africa) The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre In 1519 Charles V was elected Holy Roman Emperor. He believed that it was his duty to maintain the unity of Christendom.
Many German princes converted to Lutheranism because it allowed them to seize Church property.
In the Peace of Augsburg (1555) Charles accepted the religious status quo in Germany. Germany and the Protestant Reformation (cont'd) Emphasized the invisible Church of all believers, not the visible hierarchy culminating in the Pope.
Luther argued that there were only three, not seven sacraments, baptism, penance, and the Eucharist (communion, or the lords supper) Protestant Thought (cont'd) Martin Luther rejected the notion that good works, such as donating money to the Church through an indulgence, could lead to salvation.
In 1519 Luther challenged the authority of the Pope (and of a general church council) in public debate. He was excommunicated.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V declared Luther an outlaw, but Duke Frederick of Saxony sheltered him.
Ulrich Zwingli, a Swiss priest, joined the Reformation in 1519, denouncing indulgences, monasticism, and celibacy. Like Luther, Zwingli insisted the laity should read the Bible. 95 Theses Medicine
Many deaths and didn’t know why or how to prevent them
Learned about human anatomy
physicians and scholars began to scientifically study medicine
Amboise Pare French head surgeon and specialty treating wounds. 1510
William Harvey- discovery of heart pumps and how the blood flows throughout the body
Andreas Vesalius- Founder of Human Anatomy because carried out dissections in secret of the pope
And the drawing of the human body printed being ground breaking Renaissance Cont. Galileo’s Book
31st of December 1680
Improved the telescope
Find out the “mysteries” through astronomy; Father of Modern Science
Queen Elizabeth I
First ruler of England without kind for 45 years and was world power
Women’s lead nation
Strengthened formal church
British isles were united as nation Renaissance Henry the 8th
Became head of English Church and made new branch of Christianity (so he could divorce)
Had 6 wives
Rule was stable due to his foreign policy to avoid foreign conflict
Supremacy Act- made him head of the Anglican Church Renaissance Mona Lisa
16th century. Painted by Leonardo de Vinci
1543. Explained the orbit of the planets
Believed all planets revolved around the earth before revolution. After revolution, heliocentric model of the said that the planets revolved around the sun.
Also found out that Jupiter had its own moons Renaissance cont. Major peasant revolts against the nobility occurred in France in 1358 (the Jacquerie), 1363-1484, 1380, and 1420, and in England in 1381.
French peasants were angry about taxes, food shortages, fur-collar crime, and wage freezes.
In general, peasants were better off and the revolts were due to rising expectations. Peasant Revolts Furcollar crime
Fur collar crime was crime committed by nobility-
In England, nobles returning from war had little to do and were in need of income; thus they resorted to crime.
Kidnapping, extortion, and terrorism by the upper classes were widespread.
Because governments were not able to stop abuses, outlaws such as Robin Hood sought to protect the people. Way of Life Cont. The conciliar movement
Conciliarists believed that church authority rested in councils representing the people--not the authority of the pope.
Marsiglio of Padua had claimed in 1324, in Defensor Pacis, that authority within the church should rest with a church council and not the pope and that the church was subordinate to the state.
John Wycliff attacked papal authority and called for even more radical reform of the church.
He believed that Christians should read the Bible for themselves, prompting the first English translation of the Bible.
An attempt in 1409 to depose both popes and select another led to a threefold schism.
Finally, the council at Constance (1414-1418) ended the schism with the election of Pope Martin V. Roman Catholic Church Cont. The war resulted economic and population decline for both France and England.
Taxes on wool to finance the war caused a slump in the English wool trade.
In England, returning soldiers caused social problems.
The war encouraged the growth of parliamentary government, particularly in England.
The "Commons" (knights and burgesses) acquired the right to approve all taxes and developed its own organization.
In France, no one wanted a national assembly.
The war generated feelings of nationalism in both countries Consequences of 100 years War Causes:
Edward III of England, the grandson of the French king Philip the Fair, claimed the French crown by seizing the duchy of Aquitaine in 1337.
French barons supported Edward's claim as a way to defeat the centralizing goals of their king.
Flemish wool merchants supported the English claim to the crown.
Both the French and the English saw military adventure as an excuse to avoid domestic problems.
The popular response to the war
Royal propaganda for war and plunder was strong on both sides.
The war meant opportunity for economic or social mobility for poor knights, criminals, and great nobles. The Hundred Years War Genoese ships brought the bubonic plague--the Black Death--to Europe in 1347.
Pathology and care
The bubonic form of the disease was transmitted by rats and the pneumonic form was transmitted by people.
Dirty, overcrowded cities were ideal breeding grounds for the black rats. The Black Death Poor harvests led to famines in the years 1315-1322.
Less food meant increased vulnerabilty to disease and less energy for growing crops.
Diseases also killed many people and animals.
As a result of this, economies slowed down and population growth came to a halt.
Starving people turned against rich nobles and Jews.
Weak governments were unable to solve these problems effectively. Ex-English kings tried to regulate the food supply, but failed. Prelude to disaster Thank You The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century
The Dutch system of government rested on assemblies of wealthy merchants in each of the seven provinces called “Estates.”
“States General,”( the federal Assembly) ran foreign policy, but was responsible to the provincial “Estates.”
The States General appointed a representative or stadtholder in each province. Some men held the post of stadtholder in all seven provinces.
The power of the Dutch Republic relied on its immense commercial power and prosperity.
The Netherlands was the only country in early modern Europe with almost complete religious toleration and had highest standard of living.
In 1650, the Dutch owned half of the ships in Europe and controlled much of European trade.
Dutch power began to dwindle around the time of the War of the Spanish Succession. Constitutionalism Cont. Religious Divides
James and his successor, Charles I (r. 1625-1649) appeared to be supportive of Catholicism; Puritans in the House of Commons became suspicious.
In 1640 Charles had to summon Parliament to request funding to suppress a rebellion in Scotland (against the imposition of Anglican liturgy).
As Parliament passed laws limiting Charles’s powers, an Irish uprising started civil war.
In spite of the execution of Charles I in 1649 by Parliament, the civil war did not resolve the problem of sovereignty. Constitutionalism Cont. Baroque Art Baroque Art and Music
Rome and the Catholic Church played a key role in the early development of the baroque.
The baroque was most fully developed in Catholic countries.
Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640) was the most well known baroque painter.
Baroque music reached its height with composer Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).
Versailles set the trends in court culture and became the center of the French state and a symbol of Louis XIV’s power.
All great nobles were required to spend at least part of the year at Versailles.
Access to the king led to political and economic power.
Women played a central role in the patronage system.
French “classicism” is the imitation of Roman and Greek artistic models together with the values of discipline, restraint, and balance in art.
After the 1660s French artists and musicians generally had to glorify the state and Louis himself.
Important French Classiscists: Nicholas Poussin in painting (Rape of the Sabine Women), Jean-Baptiste Lully in music, and Moliere and Racine in theater. The Culture of Absolutism Spain continued to rule a vast empire in the Americas despite its problems within Europe.
Spain’s New World territories were divided into four viceroyalties.
Charles III (r. 1759–1788) introduced the system of intendants.
Spanish polices were based on mercantilist principles.
Colonies existed for the financial benefit of the home country Colonial Administration of Spain Spanish absolutism preceded that of the French. In the 1500s, the kingdom of Castile developed the characteristics of an absolute monarchy.
Permanent bureaucracy staffed by professionals employed in various councils of the state
National taxes, which fell heavily on the poor
Spanish gold and silver, armies, and glory had dominated the continent for most of the 16th century.
The agricultural crisis, population decline, lack of a middle class (due in part to the expulsion of Moors and Jews), and failure to invest in productive enterprises meant that by 1715, Spain was a second-rate power.
The government went broke because of state debt, declining revenues, devaluing of the coinage.
In the 17th century, Spain did not have the finances and manpower to fight the expensive wars it got involved in. Absolutism in Spain Foundations of Absolutism: Henry IV, Sully, and Richelieu:
Henry IV lowered taxes on peasants and his chief minister, Sully, streamlined tax collection. As the economy revived, tax receipts grew. In 1598, Henry issued the Edict of Nantes.
Richelieu curbed the power of the nobility by reshuffling the royal council, leveling castles, and executing aristocratic conspirators against the king. Intendant system (they recruited soldiers for the army, supervised tax collection, kept eye on local nobility).
Following the deaths of Louis XIII and Richelieu, Richelieu’s successor, Mazarin provoked an aristocratic rebellion that became known as the Fronde (1648-1653).
The Fronde convinced King Louis XIV, then a boy, that the only alternative to anarchy was absolute monarchy, even as it also informed his decision to make local elites and nobles tax exempt. Absolutism in France In the seventeenth century, increased pressures of taxation and warfare turned bread riots into armed uprisings.
Popular revolts were common in England, France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy in the mid-17th century.
By the end of the seventeenth century, the state was better able to deal with popular discontent. Popular Political Action Both constitutional (England and Dutch Republic) and absolutists monarchs (France, Spain, central Europe, and Russia) attempted to protect and expand their frontiers, raise new taxes, and consolidate state control.
There were many obstacles faced by rulers who wished to increase their authority.
Privileged groups, chiefly the nobility, resisted the centralizing efforts of European monarchies.
Other bodies that had autonomy opposed this (church, the legislative corps, town councils, guilds, etc.)
Most states succeeded, to varying degrees, in overcoming obstacles to achieving new levels of central control.
Over time, government power became something close to sovereignty, when a state possesses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within clearly defined boundaries.
While 17th century states did not acquire total sovereignty, they made important strides towards it.
The driving force behind seventeenth-century state-building was warfare. Armies grew larger, more professional, and, consequently, much more expensive. State-Building New ideas about race developed.
There was no particular connection between race and slavery in the Ancient world.
European settlers brought their ideas about race with them to the Americas.
Medieval Christians and Arabs shared negative views of blacks.
Slavery in the new world contributed to more rigid notions of racial inferiority. Changing Attitudes and Beliefs During the 1500s and 1600s, there was a huge influx of precious metals into Spain from its American colonies.
Population increase in Spain and the establishment of new colonies created greater demand for goods in Spain.
The economy could not meet the demands. Inflation caused the Spanish government to go bankrupt several times.
Spain’s expansion in the new world translated to Spanish expansion in Europe.
Phillip II gained a vast and massive empire in Europe. He had even aided in a plot to replace Elizabeth I of England with Mary Queen of Scots (but she was executed).
Phillip then assembled the Spanish armada which would be destroyed by the English in 1588.
This would mark the beginning of the end of the Spanish hegemony. Effects of Spanish Discoveries The Spanish established the encomienda system, giving conquerors the right to employ groups of Amerindians as agricultural or mining laborers or as tribute payers. Encomienda was a legalized form of slavery (actual slavery was illegal).
Disease, malnutrition, overwork, and violence led to catastrophic drops in the indigenous population.
Eventually, the population of the Amerindians would decline creating a labor shortage. This created a need for more slaves. Slaves had previously been all white and had came from the Black Sea region. The Ottomans though had cut of slaves from this region.
New options for slaves:
Native Americans (did not survive long under conditions of slavery and forced labor)
They then turned towards slaves from Africa. Atlantic Slave Trade
Columbia Exchange- refers to a period of cultural and biological exchanges between the New and Old Worlds. Exchanges of plants, animals, diseases and technology transformed European and Native American ways of life. The World After Columbus In October 1492, Christopher Columbus reached the ‘West Indies’. An Italian who sailed under Spain, Columbus is often credited with the ‘discovery’ of America.
News of Columbus’s voyage quickly spread throughout Europe.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) divided the non-European world between Spain and Portugal. Spain got everything that was west of the imaginary line while Portugal got what was east of the line.
In 1519 Ferdinand Magellan, working for Spain, rounded Cape Horn and entered the Pacific Ocean, eventually circumnavigating the globe.
In 1497 John Cabot, a Genoese working for England, explored the northeast coast of North America and discovered Newfoundland.
From 1534–1541, Frenchman Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River region of Canada.
From 1519–1522, Hernando Cortés sailed from Hispaniola to Mexico and defeated the Aztecs.
Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire of the Andes between 1531 and 1536. Explorers of the New World New demands for luxury goods and spices came.
The fall of Constantinople in 1453 and subsequent Ottoman control of trade routes created obstacles to fulfilling these desires for goods and spices.
Religious fervor was another important catalyst for expansion. The passion and energy ignited by the Iberian reconquista encouraged the Portuguese and the Spanish to continue the Christian crusade. Overseas exploration was a transfer of religious zeal, enthusiasm fro conquest and expansion.
Curiosity and a desire for glory also played a role in European expansion.
Developments in shipbuilding, weaponry, and navigation provided another spur to expansion:
Caravel- small, light, three-mastered sailing ship made by the Portuguese.
Ptolemy’s Geography Causes of European Expansion Europe was the western terminus of the world trading system. Before the Portuguese and Spanish voyages, the Italian city-states Venice and Genoa controlled European luxury trade with the East.
Venice grew in importance with the creation of the reached the height of its power in the 1400s.
Venice specialized in luxury goods and slaves.
Genoa was Venice’s ancient rival. The Genoese focused on finance and the Western Mediterranean as opposed to trade and the Black Sea region. The Genoese were active in the slave trade. World Contacts Before Columbus (Genoese and Venetian Middlemen) The Middle East was crucial to the late medieval world trade system, serving as an intermediary for trade from all over Asia, Africa and Europe.
The most famous trade route leading through the Middle East was the ancient Silk road that linked the West to the Far East.
The Turkish Ottomans and the Persian Safavids, dominated the Middle East region.
Ottoman expansion had political, economic, and religious goals. The Ottomans wished to control the Balkan and the Mediterranean so as to monopolize trade routes with the West and spread Islamic rule. This scared the Europeans.
The Safavids also opposed Ottoman expansion. Like the Ottomans, the Safavids were important intermediary figures in the Afro-Eurasian trading system.
The Safavids and the Ottomans- very hostile relations towards each other. World Contacts Before Columbus (Ottoman and Persian Empires) China played a key role in the 15th century revival of Indian Ocean trade. China had been an economic powerhouse with the most advanced economy in the world.
Between 1405 and 1433 Admiral Zheng He led 7 voyages to achieve emperor Yongle’s diplomatic, political, geographical, and commercial goals. Yongle wanted to secure China’s hegemony and form new tribute-paying relations with profitable trade centers.
India was another crucial link between the Persian Gulf and the Southeast Asian and East Asian trade networks. India had ancient links to its neighbors.
The Indian Ocean trading system- ancient and active trade conducted from multicultural, cosmopolitan port cities. World Contacts Before Columbus cont. Women in Southeast Asia enjoyed relatively high autonomy. Their important role in planting and harvesting rice gave them authority and economic power.
Unlike in Europe, the more daughters a Southeast Asia man had, the richer he was.
Because of the respect for women, they would participate in business as independent entrepreneurs or partners in family business, even undertaking long sea voyages. World Contacts Before Columbus cont. A type of “world economy” had linked the products and the people of Europe, Asia, and Africa in the 15th century prior to Columbus’ exploration. This pre-Columbian trading world center was the Indian Ocean.
The Indian Ocean was a crossroads for commercial and cultural exchange due to its location.
Since Han and Romans times, seaborne trade between China, India, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe had flowed across the Indian Ocean.
In the 15th century to the east on the South China Sea, the port of Malacca became a great commercial entrepot, to which goods were shipped for temporary storage while awaiting distribution to other places. World Contacts Before Columbus European Exploration and Conquest, 1450-1650 Chapter 15 Catholics and Protestants in Europe in 1560 Ethnics shaped the Reformation in Eastern Europe.
In Bohemia, ethnic grievances of the Czech majority combined with resentment of the Roman church.
During the Counter-Reformation, a Catholic revival was promoted in Bohemia.
By 1500 Poland and Lithuania were joined in a dynastic union.
King Sigismund I of Poland banned Luther’s teachings, limiting its success there. The Reformation in Eastern Europe Scottish nobles usually supported the Reformation, while the monarchs, King James V and his daughter Mary (r. 1560–1567), opposed it.
James Knox, a minister who studied in Geneva with Calvin, was important in getting the Scottish Parliament to set up a Calvinist church as the official state church of Scotland (Presbyterianism). The Establishment of the Church of Scotland The Empire of Charles V Even before Luther city governments in Germany had been expressing resentment of clerical privilege and immunities.
Luther’s writing that “a Christian man is the most free lord of all” helped fuel peasant unrest in Germany.
Following crop failures in 1523 and 1524, Swabian peasants in 1525 demanded an end to death taxes, new rents, and noble seizure of village common lands.
Luther initially backed the peasants.
When the peasants turned to violence, however, Luther egged the lords on as they crushed the rebellions. Impact of the Reformation Maintained that God’s grace alone, without any element of individual good works, saved people.
Held that religious authority resided in Scripture alone, not Scripture in combination with traditional Church teachings.
Asserted that the Church consisted of the whole community of believers, not just the clergy. Protestant Thought Martin Luther (1483-1546) Corruption - Nepotism, Pluralism, Simony and Indulgences
Widespread desire for meaningful religious expression
Clerical immorality priests frequently violated their vows of celibacy. They were also accused of drunkenness, gambling, and other vices.
Clerical ignorance many priests could barely read or write.
Upper levels of the Church hierarchy were dominated by aristocrats who lived well. The Catholic Church in the Early 16th Century Reformations and Religious Wars,
1500-1600 Chapter 14 Newton improved the telescope
Added mirrors instead of lenses, Refractor
People feared the Church; diversity of religions.
New body was under control of Spanish monarchy
Abolished until 1834; reign of Isabel II
Jurisdiction over Baptized Christians Renaissance Cont.
Studies using Microscope
18th October 1660 because Galileo popularized them
Helped see the unseen; animal, plant cells
1666. Came up with the idea of Gravity. (later letting us space travel)
Laid the ground rules of todays science
Came up with binomial theorem, Calculus Renaissance Cont. Invention of Flush toilets
1st of January 1596. John Harrington. Made the first for himself then his godmother, Queen Elizabeth
Mocked because of his “foolish” invention
Not until 1885 that flush toilets were revolutionized Renaissance Niccolo Machiavelli
1513 wrote The Prince on how to be a good leader and stay in power
Wrote because forced to give up politics
Idea from his preoccupation of Italy’s political problem and ancient Rome
First to abandon morality of political activities
1520 protest against church with the 95 thesis People and Events Italian Renaissance
Italian city states: Florence, Genoa, Milan, Papal States, Venice
Powerful middle class of merchants and bankers controlled the governments of the city states and served as patrons of art
The economic power of the city-states made Italy a center of culture and luxury in Western Europe during the 14th and 15th centuries.
Humanism- drew on the antiquities, emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities
Petrarch- father of humanism
Renaissance spread to Northern Europe.
Religion was emphasized in the north.
Emphasis on reforming all of society through better Christian values
Renaissance curiosity for knowledge. Based research on Hebrew and Greek texts. Renaissance The Renaissance was a rebirth of classical Greco-Roman art, architecture, thought, works, and styles.
Major impact in human civilization
Printing press it the spread of ideas , 1440. invented by Gutenberg
Humanism- study of antiquities.
Columbus lands in the Caribbean's, October 12th 1492. Helped economics and trade and imports.
Landed on San Salvador and went to Cuba later on Renaissance European Society in the Age of the Renaissance, 1350-1550 Chapter 13 Villon used the language of the lower classes to portray the reality, beauty, and hardships of everyday life.
Christine de Pisan's poems and books were on love, religion, and morality and celebrated the accomplishments of women and gave advice for all women.
Vernacular literature emerged in eastern Europe, partly as a result of new national self-consciousness.
Overall, the number of laypersons who could read and write increased but society continued to be based on oral culture. Literature cont. The emergence of national consciousness is seen in the rise of literature written in national languages--the vernacular.
Before, most texts would be in Latin or Greek.
Many literary masterpieces manifest this new national pride.
Dante's Divine Comedy, a symbolic voyage through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise to God, captures the psychological tensions of the age and contains criticism of some church authorities.
In the Canterbury Tales, Chaucer depicted the materialistic, worldly interests of a variety of English people in the fourteenth century. Vernacular Literature Earlier (twelfth and thirteenth century) migrations led to peoples of different ethnic-racial background living side by side.
"Race" meant language, custom, and law--not biological classification.
In the early period, newcomers were given separate but equal rights.
Exception to this was Ireland- the English practiced extreme racial discrimination. In the later
Middle Ages legal pluralism disappeared and emphasis on legal homogeneity, language, and blood descent led to ethnic tension. Racial Ideology Marriage and the family
Marriage usually came at 16 to 18 years for women and later for men.
Legalized prostitution existed in urban areas and was the source of wealth for some women.
Economic factors, rather than romantic love, usually governed the decision to marry.
Divorce did not exist.
Many people did not observe church regulations and married without a church ceremony due to scarcity of priests’ visits. Way of Life in 14th and 15th century The Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377)
The pope had lived at Avignon since the reign of King Philip the Fair of France and were subject to French control.
Caused further damage to papal prestige.
It left Rome poverty stricken.
Pope Gregory XI brought the papacy back to Rome in 1377, but then Urban VI alienated the church hierarchy in his goal to reform the church.
A new pope, Clement VII, was elected, and the two popes both claimed to be legitimate.
The Great Schism (1378-1417)
England and Germany recognized Pope Urban VI, while France and others recognized the antipope, Clement VII.
The schism brought the church into disrepute and weakened the religious faith of many. Roman Catholic Church Priests, monks, and nuns cared for the sick, and as the male clergy were killed off, women began to take over traditionally male offices and some women even performed the services of priests.
In the towns the plague meant population decline, labor shortage, and high inflation. Wages, labor productivity, per-capita wealth, and demand for slaves increased
The psychological consequences of the plague included: flagellantism (whipping themselves to please God)
Society became divided and full of fear.
Artists and writers became obsessed with death. Consequences of Black Death Most people had no rational explanation for the disease, and out of ignorance and fear many blamed it on Jews, causing thousands of Jews to be murdered.
Many also believed it was due to religious reasons; that God was punishing them for their evil.
Its last occurrence was in France in 1721.
A vaccine was not developed until 1947. The Black Death cont. The Crisis of the Later Middle Ages, 1300-1450 Chapter 12 Astrid G., Dylan S., David S., Azizat A. Chapter 12-16 17th century is referred to as an ‘age of crisis’.
After the economic and demographic growth of the sixteenth century, Europe faltered into stagnation.
This was partially due to climate changes as well as bitterness of religious divides, the increased pressures exerted by governments, and the violence and dislocation of war.
This period saw a growth in army size as well as new forms of taxation, government bureaucracies, and increased state sovereignty. Seventeenth-Century Crisis and Rebuilding Met intermittently from 1545 – 1563
Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings
Scripture and Tradition
Faith and Good Works
Sacraments The Council of Trent Old and New
Emergence of new female mysticism
Regeneration of religious orders
Creation of new religious orders
The Society of Jesus
Ignatius of Loyola (1491 – 1556)
The Spiritual Exercises
Jesuits recognized as a religious order (1540)
Absolute obedience to the papacy
Three major objectives of Jesuits
Education crucial to combating Protestantism
Propagation of Catholic faith among non-Catholics
Fight Protestantism The Catholic Reformation Although the English tried to impose their church on Ireland, the Irish resisted and remained Roman Catholic. Protestantism in Ireland Menno Simons Ideas in common:
1. Church was a voluntary association of believers
2. Adult baptism
3. Separation of Church and State
Menno Simons (1496 – 1561)
Separation from the World
Mennonites The Radical Reformation: The Anabaptists The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty
In 1477 the marriage of Maximilian I of the House of Habsburg and Mary of Burgundy united the Austrian Empire with Burgundy and the Netherlands, making the Habsburgs the strongest ruling family in the Holy Roman (German) Empire.
The Habsburg Charles V (1500–1558) inherited Spain, and Spanish possessions in Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia, in addition to the lands mentioned above. Germany and the Protestant Reformation Decline of Medieval Chivalry
Chivalry, a code of conduct for the knightly class, enjoyed its final days of glory during the war.
Chivalry and feudal society glorified war.
Joan of Arc and France's victory
Joan of Arc was a peasant girl who disguised herself as a man and led the French army towards several important victoreis. She participated in the lifting of the British siege of Orléans in 1429.
She was turned over to the English in exchange for money and burned as a heretic in 1431. Hundred Years War Cont. Henry IV of Navarre The French Wars of Religion (1562 – 1598)
Revolts against the monarchy
Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (August 24, 1572)
Henry IV of Navarre (1589 – 1610)
Converts to Catholicism
Edict of Nantes (1598) Politics and the Wars of Religion in the Sixteenth Century Mary I Henry VIII (1509 – 1547)
Catherine of Aragón (First Wife)
Henry seeks to dissolve marriage
Anne Boleyn (Second Wife)
Act of Supremacy (1534)
Thomas Cramner, Archbishop of Canterbury
Edward VI (1547 – 1553)
Mary I, “Bloody Mary” (1553 – 1558)
Intends to restore Catholicism to England
Alliance with Spain The Reformation in England John Calvin (1509 – 1564)
Institutes of Christian Religion (1536)
Calvinism: militant form of Protestantism
The Lord’s Supper
Consistory John Calvin and the Development of Calvinism