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Post WWII World
Transcript of Post WWII World
Europe divided in two halves
Eastern Europe – Communist and in Soviet Control
Western Europe – Mostly democratic
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) a defensive military alliance of U.S., Canada, and 10 Western European nations
WWII Ends – What Now? Begin The Cold War!
Construction of The Berlin Wall
How was Germany Divided Post WWII?
What were the Post-WWII Policies of U.S. and USSR?
United Nations (UN) is formed
New peacekeeping organization, both the U.S. and Soviet Union are members
15 Members - 5 are permanent have veto power
U.S., USSR, France, United Kingdom, China
What was the Soviets' Response to Containment?
"It is my duty, however, to place before you certain facts about the present position in Europe. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow. The safety of the world, ladies and gentlemen, requires a unity in Europe, from which no nation should be permanently outcast."
Winston Churchill, Iron Curtain Speech: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/churchill-iron.html
Access raw materials for U.S. industries
Rebuild and reunite Germany
Rebuild USSR with E. European materials
Keep Germany divided to keep it weak
What was the U.S. policy of Containment?
Germany divided into 4 occupation zones
U.S., Soviet Union, France, Great Britain
Berlin, the capital also divided into 4 zones
Eventually this would cause:
The Berlin Airlift
Containment - U.S. policy to block Soviet influence and expansion of communism
Truman Doctrine – support to countries rejecting communism, Turkey and Greece get $400 million in aid
Marshall Plan – financial aid to help countries rebuild following WWII – 12.5 Billion in aid
United States, United Kingdom, Canada, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg
NATO - The Original 12
Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania
Berlin Blockade – Stalin cuts off access to West Berlin in order to gain control of it
Warsaw Pact – defensive military alliance of Soviet Union and Eastern European countries
8 Original Warsaw Pact Members
The Berlin Wall
Iron Curtain – the division between East and West Europe - It is kind of imaginary - March 1946 named by Churchill
Soviet Union wanted to shield itself from Western European invasions
USSR occupied Eastern European countries and installed communist governments
Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania,
Roots of the Cold War
Big 3 (U.S., Britain, USSR)
WWII brought Big 3 together against common enemy - Hitler and the Nazis
3 Issues make Big 3 Alliance uneasy
1. Brit and U.S. Participation in Russian Civil War
2. Red Scare - 1920s in the U.S.
3. British policy of Appeasement and Stalin's Non-Aggression pact with Hitler
According to Hitler
"After the collapse of the German Reich . . . there will be only two powers in the world: The United States and Soviet Russia. Through the laws of history and geographical position these giants are destined to struggle with each other through war, or through rivalry in economics and political ideas"
- Hitler's Political Testament, April 1945
Nazi Power had been destroyed . . . Now what?
Many countries had no proper government
American and Soviet leaders have drastically differing views
Americans = Capitalism and Democracy
Soviets = Communism
Ideologies will clash
Conferences between the Big 3 at Yalta and Potsdam will put differences on full display
What was decided at Yalta?
Meeting between the Big 3, Feb. 1945
1. Stalin to enter war against Japan after German surrender
2. Germany and Berlin to be divided into 4 zones
3. Hunt down and punish war criminals of the Holocaust
4. Liberated nations of Europe to have free elections
5. United Nations would be formed
What to do with Poland?
Stalin: Wants USSR border to move into Poland and Polish border to move in Germany
Churchill and Roosevelt: Wanted to stop Stalin from imposing communism on Poland and guarantee that democracy be introduced.
What was different at Potsdam?
Final Postwar meeting between the Big 3, July/Aug 1945
1. Stalin's armies occupied most of Eastern Europe
2. Truman replaces Roosevelt, Atlee replaces Churchill
3. Successful American test of A-Bomb
1. Treatment of Germany (cripple or rebuild)
Stalin wants to cripple Germany
Truman does not want to repeat Versailles
Stalin wants compensation
Truman - see above
3. Soviet policies in Eastern Europe
Stalin does not want U.S. to have a say
Results in Berlin Airlift - US/Britain fly in all supplies - June 1948 - July 1949
What was the Cold War?
state of diplomatic hostility between U.S. and USSR following WWII
struggle over political differences without direct military action
use of spying, propaganda, diplomacy, secret operations, financial aid, alliances, space race, nuclear arms race