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Hinduism

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Janki Bhakta

on 18 May 2016

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Transcript of Hinduism

Hinduism is the oldest major religion originating around the Indus Valley (within modern day Pakistan) around 4,000 years ago.
Why did
Hinduism start?
Hinduism wasn't created with a true purpose.
Hinduism was created through multiple social and political developments. The early history of Hinduism is difficult to date and Hindus themselves tend to be more concerned with the substance of a story/text rather that its date.
Basic Beliefs:
Customs:
Misconceptions/Fallacies:
-Politicians support Muslims more than they support Hindus

-The Caste System does not allow rich and poor to mix (Brahmans as the highest class worthy of worship, the class of rulers, the class of the rich ... and the Dalits the lowest who have been the outcasts for many centuries.)

3 Influences of Religion/Culture:
Hinduism
Where did
Hinduism start?

500BCE-500CE
500CE-1500CE
&
1500-1757CE
1947CE-Present Day
1757-1947CE
1500-500BCE
Before 2000BCE
The Epic, Puranic, and Classical Age:
During this time period, many elements present in Hinduism today were created, such as bhakti (devotion) and temple worship. The many stories that give reason to the Gods/Goddess were created during this period of time. These stories were called the Mahabharata (the famous Bhagavad Gita is apart of this) and the Ramayana. These stories taught the idea of dharma (law,duty, and truth).
Medieval Period
The Medieval Period consisted of the rise in bhakti to the major deities, particularly Vishnu, Shiva, and Devi.
British Period
At first, the British did NOT interfere with the religion and culture of the Indian people, allowing Hindus to practice their religion freely. Later, missionaries arrived preaching Christianity. This started the war that would later lead to India's independence.
Independent India
Tensions between the Hindus and the Muslim rises.
The Indus Valley Civilization
There my be continuities between the Indus Valley Civilization and later Hinduism as suggested by the apparent emphasis on ritual bathing, sacrifice, and goddess worship; but ritual purity, sacrifice and an emphasis on fertility are common to other ancient religions.
The Vedic Period
This is the time period when Vedas were composed, we can say that the early Vedic Religion was centered the sacrifice and sharing of the sacrificial meal with each other and with the many gods (devas). The term sacrifice is not constrained to offering animals but more towards other things like milk and clarified butter into the sacred fire.
Pre-Modern Period
Hindu traditions were developed and spread into the South, along side of the rise of Islam in the North as a religious and political force in India.
Obstacles, Persecutions, or Problems:
The End.
Religious Calendar
Jan. 14th:
Uttarayan/Makar Sankranti
-Makar Sankranti means changing of seasons from Winter to Spring.
-Uttarayan means kiting flying.
-We celebrate Makar Sankranti because on this day the sesame seeds grown get bigger, so the people get together to make Laddos (Sesame Seed Sugar Sweets), fly kites, pray together, and eat a feast.
-We celebrate Uttarayan and Makar Sankranti by flying kites. In India they celebrate by making Laddos, eating a feast together, praying together, and having kite-flying competitions.

Feb. 27th
Maha Shivratri
-Shiv Puja (Puja is a worship consisting of singing prayer and praying)
March 17th-18th
Holi then Dhuleti
-We celebrate Holi because there was saint by the name of Prahlad. His dad first tired to him to a pole and left him there nothing happened to him, then his dad tired to boil him in oil and still nothing happened to him, and then they put in a bonfire and still with god’s power nothing happened to him, so every since that day we celebrate Holi (meaning bonfire) in honor of Prahlad.
-We celebrate Holi here by creating a small bonfire and dhuleti (meaning the throwing of colored powders). In India they celebrate Holi by creating a large bonfire and they play dhuleti.

July 27th:
Shravan Maas
-The date of this fast changes, sometimes its in July and sometimes its in August, it lasts a total of 28 to 30 days (a month).
-Considered the holiest month of the year.
-Fast everyday of the month, meaning you only eat one meal a day and sometimes fruits during the day or only eating one meal a day on every Monday of that month.
-This is done to gain prosperity from Lord Shiva.

Aug. 10th:
Rakshabandhan

-Rakshabandhan is a day dedicated to celebrating your brother (it can be your biological brother, cousin that’s a boy, and close friends that are males that you consider as brothers). Only sisters’ are allowed do this, a brother can’t do this for another brother and a sister can’t do this for another sister, she must only do this for her brother, or someone she considers her brother.
-The sister prays for a bright future for her brother, so that he can prosper and live a healthy life; and the brother blesses the sister in return with the same.
- Rakhi’s (Homemade (Friendship Bracelet like) Bracelets) are tied to the right hand (we just do everything with our right hand) of the brother. The brother must keep this Rakhi on until it breaks off. The bracelet represents the bond between the brother and the sister. The bracelet breaking off does not mean that the bond is broken, it represents that the brother and sister can go through a lot without their bond being broken (the wear and tear of the bracelet) because even after it has broken off, they are still and always will be brother and sister.

Aug. 15th:
Independence Day

- The struggle for India's Independence began in 1857 with the Sepoy Mutiny in Meerut. Later, in the 20th century, the Indian National Congress and other political organizations, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, launched a countrywide independence movement. Colonial powers were transferred to India on August 15, 1947.
-Kites are flown all over the city.
-Parades are held.
-Fireworks are popped.
-Stores and Businesses are closed.
-The president delivers the “Address to the Nation”

Aug. 17th:
Janmashtami
-We celebrate Janmashtami because our god Krishna was born on this day.
-We celebrate Janmashtami by singing prayer songs from the afternoon til midnight. In India they celebrate Janmashtami by singing prayer songs from midnight to the next day.
-You fast for the whole entire day of Janmashtami.

Sep. 25th:
Navratri
-We celebrate Navratri because we want to show the goddess of power, respect and so she will bless us with her power.
-We celebrate Navratri by doing traditional folk dances for 9 days and we pray. In India they celebrate the same way but on a much larger scale.
-You fast for 9 days during Navaratri.

Oct. 23rd:
Diwali
-We celebrate Diwali because Shree Ram was sent to the forest for fourteen years because his father, the king, had three wives where they two had 1 kid and the third had two kids. The king as war at point and the only wife there was the second wife because the were newly married, and since she helped him, he promised her to give her whatever she wanted, so she decide to ask him later on. The king originally planned to king Shree Ram (son of the first wife, oldest child), but the second wanted to king her son, Bharat, so she asked the king to king him as her wish and that Shree Ram should go to the forest for fourteen years. After he finished his fourteen years, he returned and the whole wanted Ram as the king, so his return made him happy, and they ended up making Ram the king. That’s why we celebrate Diwali.
-We celebrate Diwali by lighting candles everywhere in our houses and outside houses and doing fireworks. In India they celebrate Diwali by cooking a feast and handing out holy offering of sweets.

Oct. 24th:
Hindu New Year:
-Sal Mubarak (Happy New Year)
-Hindu New Year is celebrated with Diwali (which is kind of like New Year’s Eve in a way)

Hindus believe in a one, all-pervasive Supreme Being who is both immanent and transcendent, both Creator and Unmanifest Reality.
Hindus believe in the divinity of the four Vedas, the world's most ancient scripture, and venerate the Agamas as equally revealed. These primordial hymns are God's word and the bedrock of Sanatana Dharma, the eternal religion.
Hindus believe that the universe undergoes endless cycles of creation, preservation and dissolution.
Hindus believe in karma, the law of cause and effect by which each individual creates his own destiny by his thoughts, words and deeds.
Hindus believe that the soul reincarnates, evolving through many births until all karmas have been resolved, and moksha, liberation from the cycle of rebirth, is attained. Not a single soul will be deprived of this destiny.
Hindus believe that divine beings exist in unseen worlds and that temple worship, rituals, sacraments and personal devotionals create a communion with these devas and Gods.
Hindus believe that an enlightened master, or sat guru, is essential to know the Transcendent Absolute, as are personal discipline, good conduct, purification, pilgrimage, self-inquiry, meditation and surrender in God.
Hindus believe that all life is sacred, to be loved and revered, and therefore practice ahimsa, non-injury, in thought, word and deed.
Hindus believe that no religion teaches the only way to salvation above all others, but that all genuine paths are facets of God's Light, deserving tolerance and understanding.
Hindus believe that everyone should be kind to one another with expecting something in return.
A married Hindu woman wears a Mangalsutra around her neck, bangles in her hand, and toe rings, which indicate that she is married. She also applies a Kumkum spot or sticks a bindi between her two eyebrows.
Showing respect to elders is an integral part of Hindu culture. A son must take care of his parents in their old age. Younger people touch the feet of their elders to show respect and take blessings from them. Mother, Father, and Teacher are considered as next to god and are highly respected.
Hindus believe that Lord Vishnu incarnates on the earth from time to time to restore Dharma.
The idols or pictures of Hindu deities are kept in such a way that they do not face South. The practice is observed in temples as well as homes also.
A girl on her period is not allowed be near the temple or touch the idols.
Hindus believe that you should NOT wash your hair or cut your nails on Saturdays.
Hindus do not wear footwear inside homes, temples, and other holy places.
Hindus do not enter the temples after consuming alcohol and/or non-vegetarian food.
They do not eat non-vegetarian food on Mondays, Thursdays, Saturdays, Chaturthis, Ekadashis, and many other festival days.
Marriage is a big ceremony for them and they do not hesitate to take loan for that. It is like a prestige issue.
They do not kill snakes on Mondays and on the festival day of Nagpanchami.
When Hindus meet each other, they greet each other by saying ‘Namaste’ or ‘Ram Kabir’ They put together the palms of both hands while saying so.
Languages:
Sanskrit, Hindi, English, Gujarati, Punjabi, Bengali, Assamese, Dogri (Urdu), Oriya, Marathi, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Sindhi, Konkani, Manipuri, Khasi, Mizo, Lotha
Education:
The girls and boys in India go to separate schools. The children in India are in different color schools, which is a way of telling different schools apart which are in the same county. They all have the same name except for the different colors. The girls and boys in India have to wear uniforms because kidnappers are avid everywhere in India and it is a way of telling whether a kid in the school is being taken away or if it is just a normal kid. There are at least 60 kids in each class.

Gender Roles:
While many are fighting for more women's rights in India, gender roles put the women at home. Their gender roles in India are based on religion and culture more than laws. Many feel that women are oppressed in India. Women often have a lower social status they. Many may feel that women are treated negatively, however, they are often revered in religious practices and have ceremonies dedicated to them. There are no laws to treat women fairly in the workplace.
Employment:
Males are more likely to be employed than females. Males get paid more than females. Females are more likely be harmed while at the job.
Dress:
Married Women wear saris. Saris are long pieces of cloth, which the women ravel around their bodies that come with a blouse.
Younger women who are not married wear chudidars which consist of pants and a long matching dress which comes about up to the knees.
Men mostly wear pants and a long shirt usually made of cotton called lango. Sometimes they are made of silk but very rarely.
The native people of India cover themselves for safety from the scorching sun but the clothing they wear also catches the breezes that are blowing in the day.
The Indians never need to wear winter coats or heavy material except in the north near the Himalayas because the tropic of cancer runs through the southern end of India.
Marriage:
The traditional marriage in India is when the parents of the bride chose a man to be her husband. The wedding is a time of great celebration and they even blow off fireworks or firecrackers as they are called in India. All the bride and groom's family comes and the siblings of the bride tell secrets about her to the groom and the siblings of the groom tell all his secrets to the bride so they know each other's secrets. Many weddings in India take place at a large religious place's extra room so the wedding couple can pray after they are wed.
Basic Cultural Explanations
The Culture is heavily based off the Religion.
-Greetings
-Festivals
-Morals of The People

#1.
#2.
The Religion has shaped the Country of India.
-People’s way of life
-Politics

#3.
The Religion has taught people what standards to have and not have.
-Animals, Humans, Everything living is scared
-Caste System
-Karma

Food:
Butter Chicken, Tandoori Chicken, Biryani, Idli/Dosa with Sambar, Palek Paneer, Naan/Parathas, Samosas, Pav Bhaji, Panipuri, Pickled Fruit and Vegetables, Curry/Dar Bhat.
Marriage ;
How to be a Stereotypical Indian:
Stereotypes:
-The dot on the forehead.
-Cow worshipers.
-Hairy
-Short
-Super Smart
-Technicians, Doctors, Gas Station Owners, Hotel Owners
-Smell Bad
-Curry Lovers
-Terrorists
Solution:
In order to get rid of these stereotypes, we have to start educating people and start showing them that yes some of these stereotypes are true to certain people, but those stereotypes should not make the person and it does NOT give them the right to outcast one-another.
Flag:
India's flag is orange, white, and green. The orange is at the top of the flag because the sun is above. The green is on the bottom because the grass we walk on is on the bottom. The circle in the white part of the flag represents Dharma Chakra. The circle has 24 lines to represent the 24 hours of day.
Shiva:
Destroyer of the World.
Sarasvati:
Brahma's partner, Goddess of Learning.
Lakshmi:
Vishnu's partner, Goddess of Wealth and Prosperity.
Brahma:
Creator of The World.
Vishnu:
Preserver of the World.
Parvati:
Shiva's partner, Kali/Durga (Evil One).
Ganesh:
Son of Shiva and Parvati.
Hanuman:
Shakti:
Goddess of Power.

Krishna:
God of Love and Divine Joy; destroys all pain and sin.
Main Powers:
There are multiple powers in Hinduism.

Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva
are the 3 lords that rule the world.
Known for his Courage, Bravery, and Selflessness.
Mandir/Temple:
A Hindu place of worship is called a Mandir or Temple. A temple is dedicated to a particular god or goddess (deity). The temple is the god's home on earth. There is no set schedule for visits to a temple. Worshippers go when they want. When entering a temple, visitors must take off their shoes and women cover their heads to show respect. The ceremony that follows is called puja. It includes prayer and a viewing of the statue of the god or goddess honored.Worshippers then circle the inner shrine with their right hand raised in respect to the deity.
Flowers:
Represent the beauty and bounty of nature, as well as the temporary nature of all life.
Flowers are either offered singularly, as petals or as a garland.
Colors:
All the colors have symbolic meanings. Often, colors are specifically associated with certain deities. For example, red is associated with Ganesh, Lakshmi and Durga. Yellow is associated with Surya, Vishnu and Krishna. Black is associated with Shani and Yama, Ash is associated with Shiva, Vermillion with Devi, Chandan with Vishnu etc.
Prasad/Sacrament:
Food is offered to the divine as a symbol of our gratitude for what the Gods have provided us. Sacrament is Gods' grace and is taken as divine gift.
Idols:
We worship the ideals the idol represents.
That is why, despite several iconoclastic centuries of foreign rule, we have not given up on "God" - as he is truly omnipresent for us.
Sacred
Items:
Kumbh:
A pot full of water, topped by flowers, leaves, coconut etc. It represents the "cornucopia", of fullness, prosperity and fecundity.
Kumbha, usually made of earth or brass, also represents the human body made of the earthly elements.
Tilak/Tiki/Chandalo:
It’s the world famous mark on the forehead of Indians – popular in the west for the “bindi” worn by women. It is a mark of respect. When a person applies a vermillion/sandalwood/camphor mark to your forehead, they are showing respect for your intelligence, status, etc.
Lamp:
Most religions consider the fire to be of divine origin. Hence, the lamp is a representative of the divine, invoked at all auspicious occasions to witness our deeds. It represents knowledge, up-liftment and light – the light of truth.
Lotus:
Of all flowers, the lotus is considered the most sacred in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist religion.
Lotus grows in the muddy waters near the banks of rivers and lakes. Its fragrant lustrous petals and leaves repel water and seldom muddied. 
Thus the lotus represents the ideal of "detachment".
Coconut:
Coconut represents the human head. 
Like our head, it too is hairy and hard on the outside, soft on the inside and is full of water! 
It also has three dots that give it the look of a "face" and thus, the humble coconut is often used to represent "us", our own intellect, our own ego and we offer that to God.
Holy Water:
Usually from sacred rivers, stream and pools, water plays an important role in Hindu worship. Holy water from rivers like the Ganges, Yamuna, Krishna and Godavari are so holy, they are used to purify all other items of ritual items by simply sprinkling them.
Incense and Perfume Oils:
Incense and perfume oils made from fragrant flowers and plant extracts are used to make the atmosphere conducive to meditation and worship.
Animals:
Animals are part of the divine universe and are associated with specific deities. For example, mouse is associated with Ganesh; eagle is associated with Vishnu; bull is associated with Shiva and Lion is associated with Devi.
Cows:
Forever auspicious, cow is venerated and worshiped in Hinduism as money is worshiped in the west! Indeed, at one time it was the very root of all wealth in the subcontinent. Cow is sacred and because we use its milk, it is accorded the same level of respect as a "mother". Cow is considered to be embodiment of all gods and hence should never be killed. Even Non-Muslim rulers of India respected this popular belief and several out-lawed slaughter of cows. Currently, a number of Indian states have laws that ban cow-slaughter.
Ohm/Aum:
The most sacred symbol for Hindus, Jains, Buddhists and even Sikhs.
Ohm is as ancient as time. Written in numerous scripts and forms, it represents the eternal “hum” that fills the universe. The “dot” that decorates the Ohm is the first ever representation of Zero known to mankind.
Swastika:
The Hindu swastika points in a clockwise direction, for millennial, it has been a symbol of progress, social, spiritual and financial. 
Its usually of red color to symbolize its auspiciousness.
When made out of seeds, grains, pulses and other food items, it represents bounty of nature and natural cycle of life.
Shrine:
It is also very common for Hindus to worship at a home shrine, often as a whole family. A bell is also often rung to help focus the mind.
Ganges River:
The Ganges River is a very sacred place to Hindus. It is a place to go on pilgrimage to bathe in sacred waters. Hindus also like to have their ashes scattered in the Ganges after cremation.
Diwali Dances:
Mathematical Representation:
There are no extremists in Hinduism
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