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Peer Assessment

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John Parkinson

on 8 November 2018

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Transcript of Peer Assessment

objective:
workshop aimed at staff who may be considering
trying out peer assessment for a variety of reasons
Things to deliver:
Introduction to peer assessment- case studies - discipline examples
Mapping considerations necessary to successfully
undertake peer assessment (ref inventory and literature)
Introducing activities designed to assist this process, which will focus on key questions

Reasons to adopt peer assessment:
student perceptions of peer assessment:
Attitude toward validity
Acceptance models: Formative, not summative
ref:
Patton, 2012 - Some kind of wierd, evil experiment
Benefits for students of Peer Assessment
Some Factors Impacting on (Un)Successful Feedback Experiences
(From Clare presentation - Slide 4)
How ‘high stakes’ is the work that is being assessed?
Sociolinguistic concept of ‘face’ (Goffman 1967) and ‘threats to face’ (Brown & Levinson 1987)
Maintaining face = fulfilling the twin desires to determine one’s own actions and focus and to have these goals and actions recognised as legitimate and valuable by other people.
Personal investment of both parties in the overall context in which the feedback takes place
Relationship between the participants (trusting, mutual respect, or hostile, dismissive?)
Manner – interpersonal and communication skills of both parties
Can be cross-cultural misunderstandings as a result of different communication conventions:
‘Communicative Competence’ – to whom, about what, in what manner – Hymes (1972);
Grice’s (1975) Co-operative Principle plus 4 Maxims: Relation/Relevance, Quality/Truthfulness, Quantity, Manner,

Lets evaluate the workshop

Please each provide an assessment of the workshop using the 'criteria' you created at the start of the workshop (reminder on the board)

Further to this you might also provide some constructive feedback around the following dimensions:
What worked best about the workshop
What could be improved about the workshop
What you will take away from this workshop
Feedback mechanisms
Individual written feedback for individual or group work (presentations/solutions/artefacts/etc.)
Proforma or Grading Form to provide structure
Scalar mechanism (paper/online likert scale or similar)

Training Students on Giving Feedback
Clare presentation - slide 15
"Marking brings out the best in the teacher"
Can be applied to anyone in an evaluative role: Course EEs, Phd EEs, novice teachers, students, particularly if they are new to the role.
The need to learn how to be a 'critical friend'.
Studying the module/course LOs
Having or collaboratively designing a framework for giving feedback
Understanding the purpose of feedback/feed-forward
Being in a situation where feedback is reciprocal
Move toward student-centered learning
"...self- and peer-assessment challenges the traditional power relations between learner and teacher, and raises questions about objectivity and reliability in
assessment (Leach, Neutze, & Zepke, 2001). These are not insurmountable challenges, but they will require some deliberate and intentional consideration."
Enhancing students future learning in higher education
Thomas et al, JUTLP, 2011
Challenges
Possible activities for workshop
Questions:
Why use Peer Assessment?
What value does Peer Assessment offer to the tutor?
What value does Peer Assessment offer to the student?
Activities (single or group)
Design an assessment to include peer or self assessment
From a supplied list please identify a programme learning outcome that cannot be undertaken as a peer assessment.
How do we begin to design a peer assessment?
Activities: need to consider

Collaborative activities
Evaluation of good and bad examples
Chance to build something either singly or in small groups
Design a Peer Assessment (activity)
Considerations:
What do you want the students to assess?
Manageability - what resources will you need?
Assessors: S+T, SS + T, or other combinations?
Training and Support required for Assessers
Co-creation of criteria or tutor set criteria?
Grading Form or other assessment form/guide?
Peer Assessment and Feedback
Workshop Aims
Participants will be invited to explore the affordances, benefits and implications of Peer Assessment processes

Learning Outcomes
Participants will:
Peer Assessment and Feedback
Clare O'Donoghue & John Parkinson
Introductions
Expectations/hopes
What do you hope to take from this workshop?
So what is Peer Assessment?
Activity
Peer assessment is an arrangement for learners
to consider and specify the level, value, or quality
of a product or performance of other equal status
learners. Products to be assessed can
include writing, oral presentations, portfolios,
test performance, or other skilled behaviors.
Peer assessment can be summative or formative.
Topping, 2009
So why use Peer Assessment?
Activity
Drivers for Peer assessment
- move toward student-centered learning, need for better assessment literacy amongst undergraduates, students seeking useful skills and competencies for future employment
Benefits arising from peer assessment
- Assessment literacy leading to better marks and understanding of feedback - lifelong learning skills - self and peer evaluation skills are valued in the workplace
Areas of activity amenable to peer assessment
- types of learning goal, type of learning activity, type of assessment

Caveats
- Training for students needs to be built into the process, Formative assessment is welcomed but summative less so in the literature, trust and reciprocity, shifting from a culture of tutor feedback to peer feedback
Where can I use Peer Assessment?
Activity
What do you have to consider when planning Peer Assessment?
Activity
Final Activity
Assessment is one thing..........
but what about the feedback
(These will become the criteria upon which the workshop delivery/outcomes will be judged in final activity)
Understand a range of affordances and benefits of Peer Assessment as a mechanism for learner development
Explore a range of Peer Assessment strategies available to them
Consider the implications of adopting Peer Assessment within their own teaching practice
Witness authentic student views of peer assessment via a local case study
What do you want the students to assess?
Manageability - what resources will you need?
Assessors: S+T, SS+T, or other combinations?
Training and support required for Assessors
Co-creation of criteria or tutor set criteria?
Grading Form or other assessment tool?
Some suggestions if none forthcoming:

Quality of presentation/presentation style
Relevance of content
Knowledge of presenters
Knowledge gained
Potentially anywhere...
...but you will need to consider a range of
factors when introducing peer assessment
Gielen, S., Dochy, F., Onghena, P., 2011. An inventory of peer assessment diversity. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 36, 137–155.
p151-152
Activity
Design an assessment to include peer assessment
Consider:
opportunities
implications
training
resources
Please use the supplied form to work this up
5-10 minutes to develop/5 mins to feedback to room
"...self- and peer-assessment challenges the traditional power relations between learner and teacher, and raises questions about objectivity and reliability in
assessment (Leach, Neutze, & Zepke, 2001). These are not insurmountable challenges, but they will require some deliberate and intentional consideration."
Enhancing students future learning in higher education
Thomas et al, JUTLP, 2011
Challenges
Implications for Practice
Peer to peer presentation is an important plank in the co-creation of knowledge within the student learning community (NB NSS).
Peer assessment is a way of ensuring peers are engaged audience members for presentation and bolster the student learning community (without peer assessment mediated through the tutor some audience members are prone to skip class or covertly work on something else in class).
Are there any ways peer assessment can be incorporated into your modules?
Summary findings 3
The atmosphere in the group and the relationship between the classmates has an important effect on the success of the peer assessment. For it to work well, all the parties must take the task seriously, both the preparation of what is to be assessed and the act of assessing. however, some students prefer it if the audience is not well know to them as they feel the audience will be more objective in the assessment. Other students feel more confident to trust the members of the audience to be fair when they are all well known to them.
Summary findings 2
By the time the students have got to the third year, the high stakes situation makes them less willing to trust their peers' judgements in summative peer evaluation despite the fact that they are quick to acknowledge the benefits of peer assessment to both the assessed and the assessors.
Students in all years recognise peer assessment as a way of building teamwork. This seems partly to be due to the co operative nature of giving feedback and partly to do with a motivational factor of not wanting to let your team-mates down.
There is a slight preference for anonymous feedback from peer evaluation (i.e. mediated by the tutor). However, this only seems to be true when the assessment is summative. If the assessment is purely formative, most students seem happy to deal and be dealt with directly by their peers.
Summary findings
With a few notable exceptions most first year students are open to the idea of peer assessment (formative or summative) and trust their classmates to be fair. some very much value the fact that it is more than the tutor's opinion that counts toward a summative grade.
The same student may have a positive experience of peer/group self assessment in one module and negative experience for it in another in the same semester because of group dynamics or the way the task is set up and managed.
Students at all levels value peer assessment against specified criteria as a helpful way of familiarising themselves with marking criteria (and by implication, learning outcomes) which in turn helps them to improve their own understanding and performance in the task.
Many students are uneasy about judging their classmates but are happy to be judged themselves by their peers. This seems to indicate a lack of confidence in their judgement or a fear of upsetting somebody.
3rd Year Student Reasoning
As I mentioned above I think one of the main reasons why students tend to vote this way is that we have more confidence in the tutor’s ability to evaluate our presentations correctly. […] I think that students take the concept of peer-evaluation more seriously by this point because the mark they get for this module may affect their final degree classification; therefore they might feel more confident that they will get the grade they deserve if the tutor’s opinion counts for 75%.
3rd Year Student Reasoning
Some ss are not taking it seriously I realised a friend who didn't even listen gave everyone 5 (best mark). When I asked him he said we are all friends so this won't be fair on someone who had a nice presentation compared to a bad one. Don' t ask for a solution because I don't know.
The tutor is more experienced about the subject than the students and at the same time they will know whether the contents of the presentations are either significant or not. Furthermore, students cannot be totally honest about their peers’ presentation.
By this point I was not surprised that we would be doing peer-evaluation of the group presentations. What did surprise me was the fact that there was a possibility that the peer-evaluation could count for 75% of the overall grade. I was a little anxious about the prospect of this happening, because I did not feel confident in my ability to judge others and if I am honest I did not feel confident with my classmates’ abilities to make judgements.
Caveat – Summative Peer Feedback
Despite several years of doing summative peer feedback with 3rd year groups and finding that my assessment and the students’ peer assessment broadly matched and telling students this, when each new group was asked at the beginning of the module what % weighting they would like for tutor and peer summative grading on a group oral presentation (75% : 25%; 50% : 50%; or 25% : 75%), each cohort chose in a secret ballot 75% tutor : 25% peer weighting.
Reflective Learning; Employability
I think the most important thing I have learned was how to make the work easier to be understood from judging a performance standing in the audience's shoes.
3rd Year Students’ Opinions
I definitely do because from my own experience I have realised that observing someone has many benefits. Like you are able to watch and see both sides the speakers’ and the listeners’ feelings and also realise their mistakes. Secondly you pay more attention to the speaker if you are taking part in this which means you understand the topic well.
At the start of my degree I felt very uncomfortable carrying out peer-evaluation and could not see the advantages it had. However, by the end of my degree I was able to see the benefits peer-evaluation can have (for example, in helping you to improve your own presentation skills and to identify what makes a good and bad presentation).
I did not think peer evaluation was necessary and did not think it would be done fairly. However, over the years my opinion changed as I find peer evaluation as useful as the teacher’s evaluation.
2nd Year Students’ Opinions
I have learnt that you can learn a lot from others and to criticise constructively
I learnt how to self criticise and evaluate others objectively through a scale system and in writing.
To be more relaxed about being evaluated by others.
The confidence that it is possible that my peers can fairly evaluate a group’s performance assisted by clearly defined criteria.
Overwhelmingly Positive
That is a good way to find out weaknesses and strengths based on an honest opinion given by the rest of the class.
I personally found it a useful experience as it matched my feelings on how I thought the presentation had gone, being judged honestly by one’s peers I found very encouraging and confidence building.
I learned how to work as a group and use everybody’s strengths to produce the best presentation possible and learn from each other for the benefit of the group.
I think it is a good exercise and encourages fair marking.
I believe it is good to share your opinion for what u thought of the presentation. Presenters can learn from that for next time.
Anxiety About Peer Evaluation
I think as an student, and a classmate I should not evaluate a person in the same position as me, and as well in the moment when you are developing a relationship with your classmates, in this early stages comments, judgements, or simply public opinions can be taken in the wrong way, as a personal attack against the work done, becoming an emotional matter.
Negative View of Peer Evaluation
No. Not only I think is not fair (possibly at that particular moment the appreciation of many teaching strategies is not developed, so the evaluation in my opinion should come from the expert point of view of the lecturer), I also think it does not evaluate the task and pay attention on personal, character features which are not necessarily related (?!) with the aim of the exercise.
More Positive Views
I had faith in my peers to give an objective, honest and fair evaluation of our performance, their evaluation grade was similar to the tutor’s and their input gave me a sense of independent validation on our performance.
It is not so nerve racking because you’re doing it for a whole class not just trying to impress the tutor.
Some MDX Student Attitudes to Peer Evaluation – positive views
I personally have no problem being evaluated by them. I always feel happy when I see some mates comment good things on my presentation and feel like I wanna do better next time when they claim that the presentation was not so impressive. It might happen that people put low marks just because there is the person they don`t like in the group, but it`s their foolishness and poor conscience, and not so many people do that.
Investigating Students' Opinions
Small-scale study of Mdx students across 3 years of study and on different modules within the same programme (approx 30 students per year) (8, 9, 8, self-selecting student- respondents for each year).
Students were asked about their experiences on peer-evaluation and self-evaluation of group oral presentations in different modules.
Training Students on Giving Feedback
“Marking brings out the beast in the teacher”
Can be applied to anyone in an evaluative role: Course EEs, PhD EEs, novice teachers, students, particularly if they are new to the evaluative role.
The need to learn how to be a 'critical friend'.
Studying the module / course LOs
Having or collaboratively designing a framework for giving feedback
Understanding the purpose of feedback / feed-forward
Being in a situation where feedback is reciprocal
Learning to Give Constructive Feedback
Example of Feedback Prompt Pro-Forma
Presentation skills
Comments/suggestions for improvement
Content matched to the questions and based on academic research/evidence
Use of visual aids to present topic in question and involve the group i.e. not reading out notes
Clarity of thought and ability to communicate effectively
Eye contact with the group and use of appropriate body language
Group involvement
Ability to answer questions posed by the audience
Interactive presentation
Correct timekeeping
Date:
Observers:
Written Formative Feedback
Individual written feedback after the event for individual or group presentation (or teaching practice)
N.B. Written feedback can be freehand or follow a pro-forma of set prompts.
Pair / Threes written feedback after the event for individual or group presentation
Should written peer feedback go directly to students or be mediated by tutor?
What is Your View of Student Peer
Assessment?
a) I think it is a useful learning tool for students.
b) I think it has benefits but is essentially of limited value.
Should student peer assessment be only formative or summative as well?
c) I don't see the point of it.
d) I don't have enought experience of it to have a clear opinion on it.
Oral Formative Peer Feedback
1. Straight after the event publically on an individual basis
E.g. after an individual or group oral presentation the audience give oral feedback to the presenters (also the same with teaching-practice groups). Scribe to take notes.
2. Straight after the event publically on a more global basis
E.g. after > 1 individual oral presentation or group oral presentations (or teaching practice slots) the audience make general evaluative comments about what went well and what could be improved with a focus on group learning for feed-forward. Scribe to take notes on white board.
Ultimate Goal of Feedback
Some Factors Impacting on (Un)Successful Feedback Experiences
1. How 'high stakes' is the work that is being assessed?
2. Sociolinguistic concept of 'face' (Goffman 1967) and 'threats to face' (Brown & Levinson 1987)
Maintaining face = fulfilling the twin desires to determind ones's own actions and focus and to have these goals and actions recognised as legitimate and valuable by other people.
3. Personal investment of both parties in the overall context in which the feedback takes place.
Some Factors Impacting on (Un)Successful Feedback Experiences continued...
5. Manner - interpersonal and communication skills of both parties
Can be cross-cultural misunderstandings as a result of different communication conventions;
'Communication Competence' - to whom, about what, in what manner - Hymes (1972);
Grice's (1975) Co-operative Principle plus 4 Maxims: Relation/Relevance, Quality/Truthfulness, Quantity, Manner.
4. Relationship between the participants (trusting, mutual respect, or hostile, dismissive?)
Activity
What characteristics would make you consider this workshop a success?
Can we come up with four?
Drivers for Peer assessment
Need for better assessment literacy amongst undergraduates leading to learning gain
Students seeking useful skills and competencies desired by future employers
Assessment literacy
Instigates and fosters lifelong learning skills
Employability Skills
Management of assessment for tutor
Relationship to self-assessment
"Assessment and learning must increasingly be viewed as one and the same activity;"
"assessment must become an integral part of the learning process. . . . When teachers share with their students the process of assessment - giving up control, sharing power and leading students to take on the authority to assess themselves - the professional judgment of both is enhanced. Assessment becomes not something done"
"to students. It becomes an activity done with students. (p. 169)"

Employability/professional skills
Boud and Falchikov (2007a) have described the ability to evaluate one’s learning and performance
as an essential part of “becoming an accomplished and effective professional” (p. 184).
Developing assessment for informing judgement. In D. Boud & N. Falchikov (Eds.), Rethinking assessment in higher education: Learning for the longer
term (pp. 181-197). London: Routledge.

Biggs and Tang (2007) argued that the ability to make judgements about whether a performance or
product meets a given criteria is vital for effective professional action in any field.
Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does
(3rd ed.). Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open University Press.

Strategies to introduce Self/Peer Assessment
More on value of
Introducing Peer Assessment
Modelling
Before engaging students in self and peer-assessment, teachers can provide examples of how they personally use assessment tools and strategies to improve reliability and accuracy.
Three-part strategy which teachers can use to improve the quality of both self- and peer-assessment:
Scaffolding
Falchikov (2007) encouraged teachers to initially start with structured grading schemes (for example, rubrics)...
Fading
...before moving to less structured systems where students negotiate the assessment criteria, before students eventually developing their own criteria.
Examples of Peer Assessment in action
Technology
Workshop Tool
Improved student motivation
Encourages
deep learning
Enhanced control and autonomy of the process of learning,
Foregrounds assessment as part of the learning process (mistakes are seen as opportunities rather than failures)
Increased opportunities for the development of critical analysis skills
Student perceptions of peer assessment: an interdisciplinary study
Planas Llado et al, 2014
Assessment Cycle
7 steps in the construction, delivery and decision making of assessment tasks:
1. Purpose or goal of the assessment
2. Selection of assessment task
3. Setting criteria for the assessment task
4. Administering the assessment.
5. Scoring the assessment.
6. Appraisal or ‘‘grading of the assessment’’.
7. Feedback and further promotion of learning
Falchikov, 2004
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