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Bianca Adle

on 7 March 2013

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Transcript of Computers

History of Computers 1971-1977 1936-1948 1948-1953 1954-1962 1964-1972 0 + - = 9 8 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 c Program
Program Languages In 1965 semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors contained on a computer chip would double every year. Types of Computer Networks Local-area networks (LANs) : The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building).
Wide-are networks (WANs) : The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.
Campus-area networks (CANs) : The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base.
Metropolitan-area networks MANs) : A data network designed for a town or city.
Home-area networks (HANs) : A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices. Uses of Computers - Word Processing - Communications
- Internet - Digital video or audio
- Banks composition
- Travel - Mathematical Calculations
- E-Learning - Business
- Defense - Weather analysis
- News - Business Computer Network A.K.A. network

Collection of computers and other hardware interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information

computers on a network are sometimes called nodes. Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called servers COMPUTERS How the Computer Works The Operating System The most important software that runs on a computer.
Manages the computer's memory, processes,  software and hardware.
 Without an OS, a computer is useless It runs tests to make sure everything is working correctly.
It checks for new hardware.
It then starts up the operating system GUI ( Graphical User ) contains graphics and icons and is commonly navigated by using a computer mouse.
Windows 98 Windows CE
Multi-user - A multi-user operating system allows for multiple users to use the same computer at the same time and different times.
Linux, Unix, Windows 2000
Multiprocessing - An operating system capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer processor.
Linux, Unix ,Windows2000
Multitasking - An operating system that is capable of allowing multiple software processes to run at the same time.
Windows 2000, Unix
Multithreading - Operating systems that allow different parts of a software program to run concurrently.
Linux, Unix, Windows 2000 Computer Memory a temporary storage area.
It holds the data and instructions that the Central Processing Unit (CPU) needs. Different Types
of Electronic Memory RAM
Read Access Memory ROM
Random Only
Access Memory Flash memory C P U Central Processing Unit is the "brain" of the computer, it is the 'compute' in computer. Without the CPU, you have no computer. 1971: Intel 4004 processor 1ST CPU Common CPU Used Today
2006: Intel Core 2 Duo processor
2007: Intel Core 2 Quad processor
2008: Intel Core2 Extreme
2008: Intel Atom
2009: Intel Core i7
2009: Intel Core i5
2011: Intel 2nd Generation Core i3, Core i5, Core i7
2012: Intel 3rd Generation Core i3, Core i5, Core i7 Input Devices
Mouse Keyboard Digital
Camera Scanner Output Devices Speakers Impact LCD
(Liquid Crystal Display) Printer Projector Program a sequence of instructions written to perform a specified task with a computer

A computer program is stored as a file on the computer's hard drive. When the user runs the program, the file is read by the computer, and the processor reads the data in the file as a list of commands or instructions. Then the computer does what the program tells it to do How Does it Work? Examples A web browser like Mozilla Firefox and Apple Safari can be used to view web pages on the Internet.
An office suite can be used to write documents or spreadsheets.
Video games are computer programs, too. Program Language Wide variety of languages used to communicate with computers
Not the usual human language

programs that are used to make computers run are made with the use of “machine languages”, every program ultimately has to execute as a stream of bytes that are instructions in your computer's machine language How Does it Work? Java
Visual Basic
JavaScript Konrad Zuse- Z1 computer (1936)
First freely programmable computer
John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry- ABC computer (1942)
Who was first in the computing biz is not always as easy as ABC
Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper- Harvard Mark I computer (1944)
The Harvard Mark I computer
John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauckly- ENIAC 1 computer (1948)
20,000 vacuum tubes later.. Frederick Williams and Tom Kilburn- Manchester Baby Computer & The Williams Tube (1948)
John Bardeen, Walter Brattain & William Shockley- The Transistor (1947/48)
No, the transistor is not a computer, but invention greatly affected the history of computers
John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly (1951)
First Commercial Computer
International Business Machines- IBM 701 EDPM computer (1953)
IBM enters into the history of computers John Backus and IBM- FORTRAN Computer Programming Language (1954)
The first successful high level programming language
Stanford Research institute, Bank of America, and General Electric-ERMA and MICR (1955; in use in 1959)
The first bank industry computer - also MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) for reading checks.
Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce- The Integrated Circuit (1958)
Otherwise known as “the chip”
Steve Russel & MIT- Spacewar Computer Game (1962)
The first computer game invented Douglas Engelbart- computer mouse & windows (1964)
Nicknamed the mouse because the tail came out the end
ARPAnet (1969)
The original internet
Intel 1103 computer memory (1970)
The world’s first available dynamic ram chip
Faggin, Hoff & Mazor- intel 4004 computer microprocessor (1971)
The first microprocessor Alan Shugart & IBM- The floppy disk (1971)
Nicknamed the floppy disk for it’s flexibility
Robert Metcalf & Xerox
The ethernet computer networking (1973)
Scelbi & Mark-8 Altair & IBM 5100 computer (1974/75)
The first consumer computer
Apple 1, 2 & TRS-80 & Commodore pet computers (1976/77)
More first consumer computer 1978-1981 1983-onwards Dan Bricklin & Bob Frankston VsisCalc spreadsheet (1978)
Any product that pays for itself is a surefire winner
Seymour Rubenstein & Rob Barnaby- wordstar software (1979)
Word Processors
IBM - the IBM pc home computer (1981)
From an ‘ACORN’ grows a personal computer revolution
Microsoft- MS DOS computer operating system (1981)
From “quick and dirty” comes the operating system of the century Apple Lisa computer (1983)
The first home computer with a GUI, Graphical user interface
Apple Macintosh (1984)
More affordable than the Lisa
Microsoft Windows (1985)
Microsoft Begins the friendly war with Apple
Microsoft and Apple (to infinity and beyond...)
Collaboration between Microsoft and Apple. Mac, vista, windows 7, iPad, iPhone, Tablets, etc EDVAC, ENIAC, AND UNIVAC EDVAC John von Neumann developed one of the first computers used to solve problems in mathematics, meteorology, economics, and hydrodynamics.
EDVAC —first electronic computer design to incorporate a program stored entirely within its memory.
This machine led to several others, some with clever names like ILLIAC, JOHNNIAC, and MANIAC. Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer John Mauchly along with American engineer John Presper Eckert, Jr. built the ENIAC.
Regarded as the first successful, general digital computer.
Many of ENIAC’s first tasks were for military purposes, such as calculating ballistic firing tables and designing atomic weapons. ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer Eckert and Mauchly eventually produced UNIVAC, which was used for a broader variety of commercial applications.
Between 1937 and 1939, John Vincent Atanasoff built a prototype computing device called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer, or ABC, with the help of his assistant, Clifford Berry.
Atanasoff developed the concepts that were later used in the design of the ENIAC. Atanasoff’s device was the first computer to separate data processing from memory, but it is not clear whether a functional version was ever built. The Future of Computers The number of transistors and the computational speed of microprocessors currently doubles approximately every 18 months. Components continue to shrink in size and are becoming faster, cheaper, and more versatile. Moore's Law Computers simplify day-to-day life.
Unfortunately, as computer use becomes more widespread, so do the opportunities for misuse.
Computer hackers—people who illegally gain access to computer systems—often violate privacy and can tamper with or destroy records.
Programs called viruses or worms can replicate and spread from computer to computer, erasing information or causing malfunctions.
Other individuals have used computers to electronically embezzle funds and alter credit histories. Long-standing issues, such as privacy and freedom of expression, are being reexamined in light of the digital revolution. Computers will become more advanced and they will also become easier to use.
Improved speech recognition will make the operation of a computer easier.
Virtual reality, the technology of interacting with a computer using all of the human senses, will also contribute to better human and computer interfaces. Standards for virtual-reality program languages—for example, Virtual Reality Modeling language (VRML)—are currently in use or are being developed for the World Wide Web. Possible future computational platforms biological computing that uses living organisms Molecular computing that uses molecules with particular properties

Computing that uses deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the basic unit of heredity, to store data and carry out operations A blue carbon nanotube wire just 10 atoms wide lies against platinum electrodes in an image magnified 120,000 times. The wire, which is .0000015 mm (.0000001 in) in diameter, is an example of the type of circuitry that might someday be used in next-generation computer technology, such as molecular computers. This integrated circuit, an F-100 microprocessor, is only 0.6 cm square and is small enough to pass through the eye of a needle. A microscopic, computerized robot, also known as a nanobot, upper left, looks for life-threatening blockages in a human blood vessel, as imagined in this artist's futuristic illustration. The hypothetical robot uses rotary blades to break up the blockage and suction nozzles to remove the gray plaque. The disk-shaped objects in the illustration are red blood cells. Some scientists say that the ever-shrinking size of computer chips will open up an era of nanotechnology in which microscopic machines will perform a vast number of functions, including medical diagnosis and treatment such as shown here. Bar code
reader Visual Display Unit
(Monitor) Kinda Like This.. ENIAC 1 UNIVAC Was also able to pick presidential winners..
"The Chip" The integrated circuit..
Computer to computer information sharing..
ARPAnet Apple 1, 2 & TRS-80
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