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Strategies That Work For Teaching English Language Learners K-12
Transcript of Strategies That Work For Teaching English Language Learners K-12
*Choose vocabulary that will be used in the classroom and list the words the students will need to know
*Think of simple commands that can be given using target vocabulary and that will require students to make a movement response
*Introduce two or three commands while demonstrating physically
*After introducing the commands alternate the order of the commands, continuing to demonstrate and encouraging students to respond to the commands
*Once students appear to know what to do without your demonstration, drop the demonstration and have students continue to respond to the commands
*Add new commands, two to three at a time
*Find new ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding of the vocabulary practiced, such as pointing to pictures or giving a partner commands
*For additional practice have student volunteers give the commands to the class
*To assess student understanding create and use a checklist of the commands students know automatically and those which still require you to model Objective: Participants will be able to implement researched strategies for effectively teaching English Language Learners how to access academic content in the classroom. Strategies That Work For Teaching
English Language Learners K-12 WHO ARE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS?
Students for whom English is not their first language.
English Language Learners form a heterogenous, complex group of students.
ELLs are students with diverse gifts, educational needs, backgrounds, languages, and goals. English Language Learners are... Students from houses where no English is spoken and students from houses where only English is spoken. ELL students may have a deep sense of their traditional culture, a strong sense of multiple cultures, or identify only with the culture associated with their current home. Some ELL students are stigmatized for the way they speak English; some are stigmatized for speaking a language other than English. In other words... Not all English Language Learners are the same! Some ELL students live in cultural enclaves while their fellow ELL students are surrounded by non-ELL families; some ELL students’ families have lived in their country of residence for over a generation. Some may be high achievers in school while others struggle. They may excel in one content area and need lots of support in another. Some feel capable in school while others are alienated from schooling. Language acquisition is gradual, based on receiving and understanding messages, building a listening vocabulary, and slowly attempting verbal production of the language in a highly supportive, nonstressful setting. How do English Language Learners acquire English? Teachers of English Language Learners are responsible for providing understandable language (comprehensible input), along with whatever supports are necessary for the students to understand the messages. The most important aspect of effectively teaching ELLs therefore is understanding them as learners. Jim Cummin's research (2000) contributes to the understanding of language acquisition and effective classroom practice in several ways. Cummins and the Dimensions of Language Differentiates between social language, called basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS), and academic language, called cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) Emphasizes the importance of the power of academic language in promoting success for English Language Learners, both at school and in life Helps teachers to understand what must be added to instruction to make it comprehensible to students Cognitively Undemanding Language Cummins' Quadrant Demonstrating the Dimensions of Language (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr A Social conversation (with gestures)
Storytelling with props Context-embedded language C Context-reduced language Social phone call
Note left on the refrigerator B Math lesson (with manipulatives)
Geography lesson with maps Cognitively Demanding Language D Social studies lecture
Multiple Choice Test Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Vital Components of a Classroom for English Language Learners Underlying Theory Base of Instruction for English Language Learners Planning language objectives for lessons in all curricular areas Building academic vocabulary development into all lessons Building and activating background knowledge Providing opportunities for extended academic English interaction Integrating vocabulary and concept review throughout lessons Providing modeling and feedback related to language usage in both speech and writing Wiki Building Content Instruction for English Language Learners Dictologos and GIST Strategies for Content Instruction This strategy is designed to improve student listening and communication skills. Dictologos Develop more fluent academic language
Supports learners in listing and recalling good English language models Dictologos help ELLs... The Procedure Involves listening to repeated fluent readings of English texts. Students Engage In the Following Procedure: 1) Listening to a content-related text read aloud by the teacher multiple times at a normal speaking pace
2) The student jots down key words and phrases from the text
3) Pairs of students recreate as much as the text as possible from their notes. Students are instructed to write the text as closely to the original as possible.
4) Create foursomes of students to compare texts written
in pairs. Within the foursome the students will
recreate a more complete text, as close to the original as possible.
5) Students will reread the text to the class.and ask other groups to see how closely it matches their versions.
6) Students recreated texts are posted in the classroom to spur more discussion. This Procedure Provides an authentic reason for communication with peers and practice in recreating, rewriting, and rereading content based English Language texts. Assessment Opportunities Have students evaluate their listening skills by highlighting parts of the final text that they remember from the orignal text.
To highlight progress over time, students can create a bar graph representing the percentage of the main ideas they remembered from several dictoglos activities. Examples GIST Generating Interaction between Schema and Text What Is Schema? Schema is the accumulated knowledge of an individual.
It is what an indvidual knows and believes to be true.
Schema is developed from an individual's experiences and knoweldge base Why is Schema Important? Students use their schema to and make sense of new learning. GIST is: A collaborative strategy designed to support student comprehension of informal texts. GIST is helpful when students read long texts that contain a significant amount of new information. It is crucial, for reading comprehension, that students schema is activated when reading new texts. Strategies for
Language Development Total Physical Response This strategy is based on first language acquisition research. When children learn their first language they first learn how to listen and gain receptive language before they speak. They respond to language by moving their bodies and speak when they are ready. Procedure Applications for TPR Total Physical Response is an active learning approach that will support students comprehension in a low anxiety atmosphere. TPR is typically used with students when they are just beginning to learn English. 1) Students will read the text
2) Students will collaborate in groups to create a
sentence that summarizes the main idea of
Group members must discuss and clarify the meaning of the text as they decide on the best summary sentence.
If the text is dense a summary sentence can be written for each paragraph
3) When steps 1 and 2 are completed groups will compare sentences looking similarities and differences. This is an opportunity to have students reflect on the different perspectives a text can generate as well as ideas they might have not considered Teacher Responsibilities The teacher needs to identify the texts to be read and explain how it is to be broken down into single sentence summaries. (Hint: teacher should examine the text prior to the students and to create exemplars for desired outcomes).
Formulate groups with one strong English speaker and with speakers of a similar language.
Student discussion must occur in English.
The teacher is the facilitator and quality controller of this process.
It is necessary the the process is initially modeled for the students.
The first experience the students have with GIST should be a whole class activity where a text is examined and a summary sentence is collectively formulated and discussed. Strategies for Literacy Development Imaging:
Creating Visual Pictures to
Support Understanding Imaging is a strategy that helps students to make pictures in their minds to support understanding of concepts and problem-solving skills. Imaging is an attribute of effective readers according to research. This strategy is especially important with English Language Learners because without guidance they may form pictures based on misconceptions related to language misunderstandings. Step by Step use of Imaging Identify a curricular connection.
Are students having a hard time sequencing a story they read, conceptualizing a math word problem, or adding detail to their writing? Plan an introductory imaging activity.
Walk students through the first activity of making mental pictures. Stress that by imaging students academic work will become easier. Some students might need to draw a physical picture to relate the picture in their heads. Purpose of GIST GIST is intended to be used in authentic assignments and serves three purposes.
1) Students develop a deeper understanding of content through a discussion that requires students to think critically of a content based text.
2) Working in groups requires students to employ both academic and interpersonal communication skills in the formulation of their sentences.
3) Teachers have the opportunity to take anecdotal notes on students' understanding of the content, the text, and the development of their academic language skills. Create mental pictures through verbalization.
Plan the words you will use to create the mental images carefully. Be willing to use some words from the student's native language when necessary. Assess the students' understanding and progress.
Have the students describe or draw what they are able to picture in their minds. Encourage to compare their images with other students and discuss the source of the differences. This discussion can clarify the meaning of words in the English vocabulary for students who have misunderstandings. Use technology to enhance student engagement. How can you use imaging in the classroom? Here are some ideas...
Building Vocabulary: Picture a monkey in your mind. Does it look like this? (Show the student an illustration or photograph of a monkey.) What does yours look like?
Reading Comprehension: Close your eyes and picture the scene we just read about. What do you see? (Teacher prompts for details.)
Mathematics: After the word problem has been read, have the students close their eyes and visualize the scene. Then have students retell the story to a partner. The partner and/or teacher can clarify and misconceptions before the student solves the problem independently.
Writing: Before writing have the students close their eyes and picture the image they want to create with words. Have students share their mental images with a partner. During and after writing have partners check each other's writing to see if it matches the mental image they described earlier. Wiki building provides authentic and interesting ways for classroom and school communities to communicate A checklist can be created to document student interactions and contributions. Applying GIST in the Classroom Anecdotal Notes Examples of Approximated behaviors Pre-K-3 students will
Collaboratively write a summary of a paragraph.
Support their opinion in a group setting 4-8 students will
Identify main ideas in a text.
Write summary sentences of a paragraph How can you create a classroom or school environment that is appropriate for ELLs? 9-12 students will:
discuss nuances of word meanings and negotiate with peers to accurately summarize bodies of text.
Explore specific word meanings related to content in the collaborative summarizing of text Movement directions
Content Vocabulary Listens to others
Contributes to summary
Defends own ideas
Takes leadership role
Presents to ideas to the class Possible desired outcomes or behaviors for an anecdotal notes checklist: Wikis technology allows students the opportunity to create and edit their own web page without having knowledge of Internet programming protocols and languages. Which of the presented strategies for English Language Learners will you try in your classroom or school? Teacher help students manage their wikis. The students however can use there own web page to collaborate and communicate with peers, teachers, and other members of the school community. Students can collaborate on reports, stories, and presentations. How do you think using this strategy will effect student outcomes? Students write and their teachers and peers act as their editors. Plan how you will use this strategy in your classroom or school. If possible plan how you will specifically use this strategy in an upcoming lesson. Once a wiki space has been set up the teacher and/or the class can decide how to use the wiki. It can be a space for students to create journals, publish their writing, or a forum for discussion on concepts and issues being raised in the class. Wikis need to be used deliberately! The teacher must set up their class' wiki in the construct of how or what they want to teach. Before setting up a wiki it is imperative that there is a goal or objective for how the wiki is to be used and what content is best suited the wiki site. Technology is a Motivator No matter what language your students speak they will be fluent with some type of technology. Wikis are a simple tool that can be highly engaging to students no matter their home language or English development level. Visit the Wikispaces website at http://www.wikispaces.com/site/tour. Examples of Approximated Behaviors for using Wikis Pre-K-3 Students will:
Post simple writings on a wiki
Respond to others on a wiki 4-8 Students will
Create simple blogs
Collaborate with others in reference to a piece of literature 9-12 students will:
Create a line of conversation about an academic construct using a wiki
Evaluate the responses of others in relation to an academic construct Who are the English Language Learners in your classroom or school?