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English Language

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Holly Parlanti

on 7 November 2014

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Transcript of English Language

English Language

Metalanguage


Discourse

Lexicology and Morphology
Semantics
Phonetics and Phonology

Syntax
A continuous stretch of (especially spoken) language longer then a sentence. Discourse can be spoken or written; it is a connected series of utterances or sentences
The ordering of and relationship between the words and other structural elements in phrases and sentences.
Phonetics-
The science of speech sounds,especially of their production, transmission and reception.
Phonology-
the study of the sound systems of language

The study of linguistic meaning
Morphology is the study of word structure especially in terms of morpheme.
Lexicology is the study of the history and present state of a languages vocabulary.
Phonemes

are the distinctive sound units n language. Australian english has 44 of these sound units which are identified in the phonetic alphabet.
eg) th
Phrase

A group of related words
Morpheme
Prosodic Features
Are the features of speech apert from the actual words. These features include intonation, pitch and stress
The smallest unit of meaning

eg) stop = 1 morpheme
stop+able = 2 morphemes
A group of words containing a subject (noun) and a predicate (verb).
Clause

Stress
Stem
Is the emphasis placed on a particular syllable or part of a word as it is announced
Pitch
Prefix
refers to the level at which a sound is placed on a scale from low to high
A morpheme attached to the front of a stem.
A morpheme that can stand alone; it represents the core meaning of a word
Suffix
Intonation
A morpheme attached to the end of a word
Independent

An independent clause can stand on it's own as a sentence. For example, The boy ran quickly.


refers to the pattern of the changes in pitch, how the waves go up and, as we speak. It provides extra information about the message the speaker is conveying.
eg) Serious, sarcastic
Dependent

Dependent or subordinate clauses can't stand on their own.
Phonetics
Types of Morphemes
Sentence Structure
Articulatory
Is the study of the way the vocal organs are used to produce speech sounds
Acoustic
Is the study of the physical properties of speech sound
Auditory
Is the study of the way people perceive speech sounds
Simple Sentences

Simple sentences are made up of a single independent clause. For example, He went by himself.
Free Morpheme
A unit of meaning that can stand alone as a word
eg) able
Bound Morpheme
A unit of meaning which must be attached to another morpheme to make a word
eg) un,ed
Inflectional Morpheme
A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator (FANBOYS)
Compound Sentences

Grammatical morphemes - (past tense, plural)
eg) Dog + s
Derivational Morpheme
Change the word class

eg) glamour --- glamorous
Content words
Open class words- they carry the meaning
Complex Sentences


A complex sentence
has an independent clause joined by one or more independent clauses. For example, he went by himself because he didn't want any company.
Function words
Closed class- they function to connect the content words
Ellipses

Ellipses is the omission of words from a sentence. For example, Got it?
Denotative meanings
Sentence Types
Those you will find when you look them up in the dictionary
Connotative meanings
A word signifying or suggestive of an associative or secondary meaning in addition to the primary meaning
Declarative

Statements or sentences that state facts.
Imperative

Commands or sentences that give orders or requests.
Lexicon
Exclamative

Sentences that express a strong feeling or emotion.
A persons vocabulary or the vocabulary used in a branch of learning
Interrogative

Questions or sentences that require an answer.
Lexical Items = words
Word Classes
Are the categories to which words belong based on their formal similarities
Noun
Adjective
A word class typically displaying such contrasts as tense, aspect, voice, and mood, and typically used to express an action, event or state.
Tells us more about nouns, maybe the colour or size of something. They usually appear in front of the world they describe.
A word class with a naming function,typically showing contrasts of countabilityand number, and capable of acting as subject or object of a clause- a naming word for a person, place, thing, idea or quality.
Pronoun
An item that can substitute for a noun or noun phrase.
eg) he, who


A word whose main function is to specify the kind of action expressed by a verb. Other functions include acting as an intensifier and as a sentence connector.
Prepositions
Conjunction
A large group of words that usually tells us the position and direction of actions relating to their noun.
A word that connects words or other constructions
Adverb
Article
A word that specifies whether a noun is definite is indefinite
Verb
Lexical Verbs
(Full Verbs)
Modal verb
Are those with a meaning that can be found in a dictionary. They act as main verbs.

eg) run, jump, walk
Convey a range of judgements about the likelihood of events. There are only nine words in this sub-class.
- can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should and must
Auxiliary Verb
(or 'helping verbs') assist the main verb in a clause to express several basic grammatical contrasts such as in person, number and tense.
Coordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions links units which have the same status in the sentence such as two clauses, two noun phrases or two adjectives.
join units that do not have the same grammatical status in the sentence.
Proper Nouns
Common Noun
Proper Nouns are names of specific people, places, times, occasions, events, publications and so on.
can be divided into two types
Count noun
refer to individual countable entities eg) books, eggs and horses
Non- count Noun
refer to an undifferentiated mass or notion eg) butter, music and advise
Consonants
a speech sound that functions at the margin of syllables. Produced when the vocal tract is is either blocked or so restricted that there is audible friction.
Vowels
Monophthong
Avowel with no detectable change in quality during a syllable
Diphthong
A vowel in which there is a perceptible change in quality during a syllable.
In speech a sound made without closure or audiable friction
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
A chart containing all the sounds (phonemes) used in the english language.
Open Class Words
Volume
refers to how loud or soft we speak.
Tempo
refers to the speed or rate at which we speak.
Closed Class Words
Closed class is a word class to which no new items can normally be added, and that usually contains a relatively small number of items
eg. prepositions, determiners, conjunctions, and pronouns.
Open class words (including nouns, verbs, adjectives, and most adverbs) are words that carry the content or the meaning of a sentence.
Assimilation
A phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound. It can occur within a word or between words.
Elision
is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase, producing a result that is easier for the speaker to pronounce.
Insertion
When an extra sound is added between two others.The morpheme -s is added to "bus," "bus-s" would be unpronouncable, so a short vowel is added to make it easier to pronounce.
Paralinguistic features
Features that add extra meaning to speech.
Body Language
Facial expressions
Eye Gaze
Conscious and unconscious body movements that help express attitudes and feelings
A gesture expressed with the facial muscles to show emotion.
A form of non- verbal communication that involves the eyes.
Sentence

A set of words complete in itself typically containing a subject and a predicate.
Sentence Fragment
A group of words that fails to be a sentence because it cannot stand by itself as it does not contain an independent clause.
Coordination
The grammatical connection of two or more words, phrases or clauses to give them equal emphasis and importance.
Subordination
Uses subordinating conjunctions or relative pronouns to transform independent clauses into dependent clauses.
Function Words
A word whose purpose is to contribute to the syntax rather than the meaning of a sentence.
Content Words
Content words are words such as nouns, most verbs, adjectives, and adverbs that refer to an object, action, or characteristic.
Root Morpheme
The root word is the main lexical unit of a word which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller morphemes.

eg. word
Affixation
The process speakers use to form different words by adding morphemes (affixes) at the beginning (prefixation), the middle (infixation) or the end (suffixation) of words.
Context
The parts of a text that is written or spoken that immediately precedes a word or passage and clarifies its meanings.
Audience
The spectators, listeners or readers a text was designed for.
Purpose
The reason for the text (either written or spoken) being created.
Semantic Field
A lexical set of semantically related items, for example verbsof perception.
Arbitrary
Based on random choice rather than any reason or system.
Word Addition
Word Loss
Neologism
A new word, meaning, usage or phrase
Acronyms
A word formed from a set of initials representing a name, organisation or words in a set phrase or a series of words. eg) ASAP
Abbreviations
a shortened or contracted form of a word or phrase eg) U.S
Compounding
Involves combining two or more free morphemes
Blending
The contraction of two or more existing words eg) brunch
Affixation
The process of adding a bound morpheme to a root word
Conversion
when a word converts to another part of speech with no affixation
Obsolence
Becomes obsolete, fall into disuse
Taboo
A inhibition or ban resulting from social custom or emotional aversion
Weakening
words that become no longer effective to express
Broadening
Less specific meaning of a word eg. Google standing for any searcg engine
Narrowing
More specific meaning of a word eg. girl
Shift
A complete change of the meaning of a word eg. dag used to be dung and now is embarrassing
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