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Unit 2 - Food Science

Data tables, lab safety, sensory evaluation of food
by

Kristin Shapiro

on 6 September 2012

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Transcript of Unit 2 - Food Science

Data tables, sensory information, measuring Unit 2: Food Science photo (cc) Malte Sörensen @ flickr Data Table & Graphs
Organize data
See Patterns
Compare products & techniques Why is data recorded? Graphs
Bar: shows comparisons
Line: shows changes over time
Pie: shows part of a whole How is data recorded? Lab Equipment and Safety

A cone shaped container with a narrow neck and a broad flat bottom.
Use it to swirl liquid without spilling. Erlenmeyer Flask A stopper is a truncated conical piece of rubber or cork used to close off containers with orifices.
We use rubber or cork stoppers Stopper


A glass container that has a wide mouth and holds solids and liquids.
Not used for measuring out liquids. Beaker A buret is a long, thin, cylinder, which is marked 0.1 of a milliliter, use it to transfer exact amounts of a liquid in experiments. Buret



Cylindrical container that holds a small quantity of a solid or liquid. Test Tube Used to store and hold test tubes in an upright position. Test Tube Rack Used to clean the insides of test tubes. Test Tube Brush A tall, cylindrical container used for exact measuring the volume of liquids. Graduated Cylinder A shallow dish with a loose fitting cover. Usually used to grow bacteria. Petri Dish Tongs are gripping and lifting tools, of which there are many forms adapted to their specific use. Tongs Meniscus Read here!! Goggles or safety glasses are a form of protective eyewear that usually enclose the eye area to prevent particulates or chemicals from striking the eyes. Safety Goggles A thermometer is a device used to measure temperatures or temperature changes. Thermometer

Part of an assembly that holds other equipment Ring Stand Instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. Microscope

A microscope slide is a thin sheet of glass used to hold objects for examination


A cover slip:
It protects the microscope's objective lens from contacting the specimen,
It creates an even thickness (in wet mounts) for viewing. Microscope Slide & Cover Slip Balance- a scientific instrument that determines the mass of materials.

Mass- is the measure of the amount of matter in a sample.

Weight- applies to the gravitational pull of the Earth on an object. Tare- refers to finding the mass of a substance without the container.

This class will be using an electronic balance, therefore you simply hit the tare button with the empty container in place. Then add your substance. Calibrate- to check, adjust or standardize the marks on a measuring instrument. (checking for precision) What influences food choice? Culture and Geography
Preferences for certain tastes have been passed down for centuries, influenced by local climates and geography, and contact with other cultures.
Examples?
What about a more diverse country like the USA? Sensory Evaluation Warm memories of family weekends that include a food. Emotions and Psychology Advertisers take advantage of the psychological impact of food! Ex: going green, food being marketed as natural Personal statement, like their clothes or car. Many religions have dietary laws and guidelines Beliefs Personal Beliefs can direct many food choices… (vegetarianism, vegan etc.) Health benefits should be considered
Health needs change throughout life
Physical conditions may a restriction in diet Health Concerns There are constantly new foods to the market
Technology has increased access all people have to foods Cost of food. Food Cost & Technology SENSORY EVALUATION
Using human senses of sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing to test foods.

lot of effort and $$$ so companies know what sell

Immediate concern is a food's sensory characteristics - taste, texture, etc What does this have to do with food science??? EVERYTHING Sensory Evaluation Flavor: the distinctive qualities that come from a food’s unique blend of appearance, taste, odor, feel and sound. Taste blind- unable to distinguish between the flavors of some food.
Taste and Smell affect one another
Outside factors: oxygen, temperature Appearance is based on habit and preconceived notions.
Size and shape
Color
Combination of color
Appearance can also be a sign of quality and ripeness. Taste & Odor Appearance 4 broad categories of taste;
Sweet
Salty
Bitter
Sour
Umami- savory, associated with MSG – ingredients to enhance salty and sour tastes. Taste buds- sensory organs located on various parts of the tongue. The cells lining the surface of the taste buds have tiny pores that allow contact between substances dissolved in saliva and the sensory cells below. Taste activates the sensory cells. How does taste work? Olfactory- organs related to the sense of smell.

Consists of a single nerve that ends in sensory cells in the nasal cavity and runs straight to the brain. How does smell work Respond to faint aromas!
Odors in the form of gas.
Substances dissolved in the gas reach cilia in nose.
Cilia are covered in mucus, which helps activate the sensory nerve cells. Olfactory organs Foods may taste differently
Volatile- (substances that are easily changed into vapor.) increases when the food is cooked
adds to its odor, also affecting taste
Heat increases the sweet taste of some sugars.
Cool temperatures enhance salty flavors Temperature Texture- qualities that describe a foods consistency. Group of people who evaluate food samples.
Highly trained experts
Laboratory Panels
Consumer Panels Sensory Evaluation of Food Minimize distractions- controlled atmosphere. Goals Help evaluators use their senses to the fullest:
When most responsive and alert.
Cleanse palate Minimize bias- mask irrelevant characteristics
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