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Tuberculosis

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by

Lexi Rodríguez

on 16 August 2013

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Transcript of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis
Intro
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Mtb)
1/3 of world's population
Claims 1.6 million / year
People with HIV...

How is Tuberculosis spread?
How do you feel when infected?
Active TB sneezing
Millions of contaminated droplets
When inhaled, person is at risk of catching TB
Mtb Bacteria
Settles in lungs (macrophage)
Why is Tuberculosis still a major killer?
Proper diagnostic tools...
Antibiotics...
Vaccines...
But because of DR Tb & MDR Tb...
Why does Mtb survive in people with healthy immune systems?
How Does Mtb become "Latent"?
-Mtb Latent to FICS
Final Immune Containment Strategy
-Seattle BioMed & Central
Diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines
Finding cures & decreasing active TB
Uncovering specific genes
Conditions of Mtb
Clarifying Any Questions
What is Tuberculosis?
Very ancient disease
19th century devastation
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)
2nd most common cause of death
Infectious disease
3 Major Types
Progressive TB
Mtb spreads all over the lungs
Symptoms:
Fever
Fatigue
Cough
Weight loss
Loss of appetite
Reactivation TB
Disease may be dormant for decades...
Immune system maintains it...
When the immune system becomes weak...
The dormant TB bacteria reactivates
Symptoms
Persistent fever
Night sweats
Fatigue and weight loss may follow
Diagnostic Tools Used
PPD (Purified Protein Derivative Test)
Sputum Smear
Chest X-ray
RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polyphorism)
Length of Tb Treatment
6-8 months
Tb Drug
Resistence Dilemma
When people stop taking their medication...
Vaccine vs. Latent Tb
The current Tb vaccine is not effective towards latent Tb
Cost to Treat Tb
Vaccine vs. Active Tb
$2,000- $250,000
BCG (bacillus Calmette–Guérin)
Tb Vaccines
Places Most Affected
-TB is 2nd killer disease
-2011: 8.7 million had TB
-1.4 million died of TB
-95% of TB in lower-middle income countries
-3rd cause for women death
-By 2015 TB rates decrease

TB Occurs Worldwide
-Asia 2011: new cases
-60% new global cases of TB
-Sub-Sahara Africa has most new cases
-260 cases per 100,000 population
-2011: 80% TB in 22 countries
-Brazil & China are slowly declining
-Cambodia fell 45% in last decade
Classification
-Kingdom: Bacteria
-Phylum: Actinobacteria
-Class: Actinobacteria
-Order: Actinomycetales
-SubOrder: Corynebacterineae
-Family: Mycobateriaceae
-Genus: Mycobacterium
Definition:
An infectious disease that may affect almost any tissue of the body, Especially the lungs, caused by the organism Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, and characterized by Tubercles.
Tb in Society
In 2011...
8.7 million infected
1.4 million died
Most Tb can be cured
U.S. Tb cases have decreased
50%< foreign people
Half of the cases:
Mexico
The Philippines
India
Vietnam
"Great White Plague"
Poor sanitary conditions...
Over 9,000 years old
1.4 million deaths annually
History
Bloody cough
Chest pains
Weakness
Weight loss
Fever
Night sweats
Symptoms
Can be fatal...
Affects:
-Lungs
-Bloodstream
-Other body parts
Most commonly affects:
-Bones
-Brain
-Liver or kidneys
-Heart
When Left Untreated...
Just a little more information...
Sneezing
Coughing
Talking
Spitting
One sneeze = 150 people
It's Infectious...
Drugs used...
Most commonly used:
Isoniazid
Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)
Ethambutol (Myambutol)
Pyrazinamide
Side Effects of the Drugs
Nausea
Vomiting
Loss of appetite
Jaundice
Dark urine
Fever
Treatment
The End
By: Dayssy Solis,
Lexi Rodriguez
and Sophia Rodriguez
Hospital
Works Cited
"Achoo! 150 Reasons Why You Should Have a Hankie at the Ready." Mail Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
"Ambiya's Story." YouTube. YouTube, 07 Jan. 2013. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
"Art Blart." Art Blart. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Aug. 2013.
Britschgi, Theresa, Ana Gervassi, et. al. TB Gene Expression. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
"The Global Health Policy Center." Infectious Diseases. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Aug. 2013.Historical Photographs." Kentucky: '"Cabinet for Health and Family Services." N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
"Documentary self-published by Iver Aldas." FotoVisura | What's Next In Photography. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Aug. 2013.
"History of Tuberculosis." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 24 July 2013. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
"How to Recognize the Signs and Symptoms of Tuberculosis." WikiHow. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
"Infant Dies in Anand Hospital after BCG Vaccination." Gujarati News Portal. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
Miller, Talea. "WHO: Global TB Cases Decline for the First Time." PBS. PBS, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
"JSS - Tuberculosis." JSS - Jan Swasthya Sahyog Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Aug. 2013.
"Pakistan: Samli Sanatorium | jasontanner." jasontanner. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Aug. 2013. "Tuberculosis : A Disease like a Slow Poison - Doc's Eye." Docs Eye. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Definition." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 26 Jan. 2013. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
"Tuberculosis - Drug Resistant in India." YouTube. YouTube, 31 Jan. 2012. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
"Tuberculosis." WHO. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
"Tucerculosis Fact Sheet." American Lung Association (n.d.): n. pag. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
"Up Station Mountain Club." 'Up Station Mountain Club' N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
"World Tuberculosis Day - 24th March." Earth Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Aug. 2013.
"XDRTB.org – A James Nachtwey Project." Martin Frster Photography RSS2. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Aug. 2013
"2008, the year in photographs (part 3 of 3) - The Big Picture - Boston.com." Boston.com - Boston, MA news, breaking news, sports, video. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Aug. 2013.
"The 2013 Sony World Photography Awards | THAIPHONG - NEWS - CULTURE - ENTERTAINMENT - ARTWORK - MOVIE." THAIPHONG - NEWS - CULTURE - ENTERTAINMENT - ARTWORK - MOVIE | Sự yêu chuộng cái đẹp là phần cốt yếu của một nhân cách lành mạnh. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Aug. 2013
The current Tb vaccine is not effective towards active Tb
-Macrophage
-Job
After 4-10 weeks with no treatment...
Mild symptoms
Primary Pulmonary TB
Directly Observed Therapy Short-course
DOTS
Day 2
Day 3
Conclusion
Day 4 & 5
Day 1
Background
Day 2
Day 3
Ideally...
Day 4:
Part A: Data Analysis
Part B: Gene Expression Analysis
Part C: Data Analysis
Day 5: Presentation
The search for a vaccine...
To begin with...
Question: In what circumstances does Tuberculosis survive in?
Hypotheses:

Lexi: I predict that Tuberculosis will thrive in the hotter temperatures because the disease is mostly found in warmer areas of the world, such as Africa.

Dayssy: I believe Tuberculosis will survive better in the warmer temperatures because bacteria grows better in warm temperatures than cold temperatures.

Sophia: I believe that Tuberculosis will survive better in warmer, more humid conditions because bacteria prefers warmer weather.
Part A:
Setting up cultures:
Set up bacteria under different circumstances
Hypnoxia
High Temperatures
Starvation
Low pH
Part B:
Isolating Messenger RNA
Chloroform experience...
Day 1
Part A:
Finish RNA Purification:
Used Isopropanol and Ethanol
Broke down DNA
Part B:
DNASE Treatment to Degrade any DNA Present
Prepared buffer
Part C:
QIAGEN RNEASY Purification
Purified RNA
Part A:
cDNA Synthesis
Copied samples
Part B:
cDNA Purification...
Part C:
Sequential Dilution...
Part D:
qRT-PCR Assay...
Day 4 & 5
All in all...
More time...
Proper supplies...
More funding...

Inconclusive due to uncontrollable circumstances
Full transcript