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The Chemistry of Life

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by

Robert Williford

on 14 August 2014

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Transcript of The Chemistry of Life

The Chemistry of Life
Proteins
Carbohydrates
carbohydrates
- a group of compounds made of sugars. Cells use
carbohydrates
as a source of energy and for energy storage.
Simple carbohydrates - made of one or a few sugar molecules linked together.
Complex carbohydrates - hundreds of sugar molecules linked together for storage - starches (potatoes)
Lipids
Lipids
- compounds that cannot mix with water.
Functions: store energy and form membranes.
Fats and oils
- lipids that store energy.
Phospholipids
- used to form cell membranes.
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids
- compounds made of subunits called nucleotides. Called the blueprints of life because they contain the instructions for making proteins.
DNA
- a nucleic acid that is like a recipe book for how to make all the proteins in an organism.
The Cells Fuel
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
- the major fuel used for all cell activities that require energy. Usable energy for life processes.
In this section we will discuss the unique molecules that are found in all living things.
After water,
proteins
are the most abundant molecules in the body.
Proteins
are large molecules made of subunits called amino acids.
Functions of proteins: provide structure, part of most chemical reactions in living things, and protect against foreign materials.
What are Atoms and Molecules ?
All cells are made up of atoms and molecules.

An
element
is a substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance.

The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element is called an
atom
.

What are the six elements that make up all living things?
What are molecules?
A
molecule
is a group of atoms held together by chemical bonds.

Some molecules are made up of only one type of atom.

Most molecules are made up of two or more types of atoms.

What is a compound?
A
compound
is a substance made up of atoms of two or more elements joined by chemical bonds.

Most molecules found in cells are compounds.

Compounds have different properties than the elements that make them.

What are phospholipids?
A lipid that contains phosphorus is called a
phospholipid
.

The head of a
phospholipid
molecule is attracted to water. The tail repels water.

Much of a cell’s membrane is made of a double-layer of
phospholipids
, which regulates molecules entering and leaving the cell.
Full transcript