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The Chemistry of Life

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Robert Williford

on 14 August 2014

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Transcript of The Chemistry of Life

The Chemistry of Life
- a group of compounds made of sugars. Cells use
as a source of energy and for energy storage.
Simple carbohydrates - made of one or a few sugar molecules linked together.
Complex carbohydrates - hundreds of sugar molecules linked together for storage - starches (potatoes)
- compounds that cannot mix with water.
Functions: store energy and form membranes.
Fats and oils
- lipids that store energy.
- used to form cell membranes.
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids
- compounds made of subunits called nucleotides. Called the blueprints of life because they contain the instructions for making proteins.
- a nucleic acid that is like a recipe book for how to make all the proteins in an organism.
The Cells Fuel
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
- the major fuel used for all cell activities that require energy. Usable energy for life processes.
In this section we will discuss the unique molecules that are found in all living things.
After water,
are the most abundant molecules in the body.
are large molecules made of subunits called amino acids.
Functions of proteins: provide structure, part of most chemical reactions in living things, and protect against foreign materials.
What are Atoms and Molecules ?
All cells are made up of atoms and molecules.

is a substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance.

The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element is called an

What are the six elements that make up all living things?
What are molecules?
is a group of atoms held together by chemical bonds.

Some molecules are made up of only one type of atom.

Most molecules are made up of two or more types of atoms.

What is a compound?
is a substance made up of atoms of two or more elements joined by chemical bonds.

Most molecules found in cells are compounds.

Compounds have different properties than the elements that make them.

What are phospholipids?
A lipid that contains phosphorus is called a

The head of a
molecule is attracted to water. The tail repels water.

Much of a cell’s membrane is made of a double-layer of
, which regulates molecules entering and leaving the cell.
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