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Ewing Sarcoma

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Shreya Gurjar

on 19 December 2013

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Transcript of Ewing Sarcoma

Ewing Sarcoma
Who Does it Affect?
- it's a rare bone cancer that most commonly affects children and adolescents
- usually occurs during puberty
- slightly more boys than girls are prone to get the disease
- for unknown reasons: occurs most often in whites and is extremely rare in African-Americans or Asian-Americans, 10 times as likely in Caucasian children
- it accounts for only 1% of all childhood cancers
What happens?
What is it?
- A type of tumor that form from a certain kind of primitive cell in bone or soft tissue
- Can be collectively called Ewing sarcoma family of tumors
- Can occur in any bone, but is most often found in "long bones" (thigh, shin, or upper arm), can affect the muscle and tissues around the area of the tumor, and can even spread to the lungs and other bones
Shreya Gurjar, Lavanya Nagappan, Apeksha Patel
Causes, Signs, and Symptoms
There are 3 different standard treatments
- The cancer usually grows in bones or in soft tissues around the bone and it also affects the muscles around the area as well.
- There are three way that the cancer spreads through the body:
1) Tissue
2) Lymph System
3) Blood
-In the tissue the cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
- A change occurs to move a gene called EWS on chromosome No. 22 next to a section of DNA on one of several other chromosomes that causes the EWS gene to turn on, but no one knows why this happens
- Pain and/or swelling, usually in the arms, legs, chest, back, or pelvis
- A lump (may be soft and warm) in the arms, legs, chest, or pelvis
- Fever with no known cause
- Bone that breaks for no known reason
- A treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells by killing them or stopping them before they divide

- Chemotherapy is the first treatment step for metastatic Ewing sarcoma

- Chemotherapy is also used to shrink the tumor before going into radiation therapy or surgery
Lymph System
-The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
-The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.
Radiation Therapy
- Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing.

- External- machine on the outside body to send radiation toward the tumor

- Internal- uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer

- Radiation therapy is used when tumor cannot be taken out through surgery
- Surgery is usually done to remove cancer that is left after chemotherapy or radiation therapy

- If possible, the whole tumor is removed by surgery

- Chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be given after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left
How do you know if you have Ewing's Sarcoma?
- X-rays
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
- Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan
- Bone scan
- Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
- If the tests indicate a possible tumor, a biopsy will be formed to confirm it
Effects of Treatments
- Radiation and the drugs used in chemotherapy damage normal cells as well as the cancer cells, and over the long term that can have an effect on the brain, which may result in learning difficulties.

- Children can also develop second cancers. For example, some chemotherapy drugs can cause leukemia, or a new cancer can develop at the site of radiation therapy. In addition there is always the possibility of a recurrence of Ewing's sarcoma.
- http://www.webmd.com/cancer/ewings-sarcoma?page=1

- http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/ewings/Patient/page1

- http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001302.htm
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