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Roller Coasters

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Sruthi Machina

on 21 June 2013

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Transcript of Roller Coasters

By: Erica Laidler, Sruthi Machina, and Kaisa Jensen
Napoleonic Wars
early 1900's
Russian Ice Slides
These slides first appeared during the 17th century throughout Russia, in the area of in what would become St. Petersburg. The structures were built out of lumber with a sheet of ice several inches thick covering the surface. Riders climbed the stairs attached to the back of the slide, sped down the 50 degree drop and ascend the stairs of the slide that laid parallel (and opposite) to the first one. The slides gained favor with the Russian upper class and you needed paid training to ride on the slides.
How Roller Coasters Came to America
French Entrepreneurs learned about the Russian ice slides and they brought the idea of a dry roller coaster to their home country. In 1817, they built the Russes a Belleville (Russian Mountains of Belleville); this was the first roller coaster in which the train that featured wheeled cars securely locked to the track, guide rails to keep them on course, and higher speeds
Catherine The Great
Catherine the Great took power of Russian in 1762. Catherine loved the Russian slides so much that she wanted to enjoy them throughout the entire year. The thrill seeking Russian empress supposedly ordered to have a dry version of the Russian ice slides built near her palace in St. Petersburg. This was one of the first instances of a dry wooden track carrying a wheeled carriage instead of an ice block posing as a sleigh.
Coney Island Roller Coaster
Marcus Thompson built a coaster at Coney Island. The popularity of Thompson’s Gravity Pleasure Switchback Railroad led to a boom in coaster building. But the number of these thrill rides fell from over 2,000 at the start of the Depression to 172 in 1970. Then, tubular steel tracks, pioneered on Disneyland’s Matterhorn ride in 1959, led to a renaissance.
17th Century
Is it the fast motion, which you can detect by the large amount of distance increased from the starting gate every second, and changes from point to point in the ride?
Is it the feeling of weightlessness? This occurs since the g-forces, (the measure of the amount of acceleration) are equal to the amount of gravity that pulls you down, and when you plummet down a steep hill, the forces are balanced.
Or is it a combination of the three?
What draws thousands of people to roller coasters every day?
How does physics apply to roller coasters?

Because the higher up the car is, the more Gravitational Potential energy it has. When propelled to the top of the first hill, the cart has a lot of Gravitational Potential energy, and when it's going down the first hill, the car gathers kinetic energy ; momentum helps the cart travel over the other hill. Some of this mechanical energy is lost due to fluid friction (air pushing against the way the roller coaster wants to go) and gravity. If the hills were as tall or taller than the first, the roller coaster wouldn't have enough energy to make it up to the top of the them.
As stated in Newton's second law of motion, the acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied (F=MXA). When the chain pulley system pulls the roller coaster up a hill, the roller coaster changes its velocity ( speed in a given direction), accelerates, and moves up the hill. The harder the chain pulley system pulls, the greater the acceleration.
A force acting on a body as a result of acceleration or gravity. People get the most rush from positive g-forces which is when they feel more weight upon them. The extreme pressure exerted by positive g-forces can cause you to potentially black out. The side effects of negative g forces( when you fell lighter) happens when you're going up too fast causing you to feel lightheaded and you heat to pump blood faster which can make your blood vessels burst.
The unbalanced force that keeps you from flying out of the roller coaster is the seat. The law that explains this is Newton’s First Law of Motion, which states that anything that has mass (anything that has matter) will have inertia, so it will stay in motion in the same speed and direction, or stay at rest. The roller coaster does not move at first until it is propelled to the top of the first hill, then it's in motion. The roller coaster in motion continues to move with constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. This force can either come from gravity, rolling or fluid friction or from the braking system as the train comes to a stop at the station at the end of the ride.

What is another thing that changes during a roller coaster ride? Velocity. All that this means is that the word incorporates both acceleration and direction. Anyone who has ever been on a roller coaster knows well of the sharp turns and jolting starts and stops of a roller coaster.

Is it the thrill, that comes with the rush of adrenaline?
Steel Roller Coasters
LSM Roller Coasters
Strata Roller Coasters
Wooden Roller Coasters
A wooden roller coaster is most often classified as a roller coaster with running rails made of flattened steel strips mounted on laminated wooden track. Occasionally, the support structure may be made out of a steel lattice or truss, but the ride remains classified as a wooden roller coaster due to the track design. Because of the limits of wood, wooden roller coasters in general do not have inversions (when the coaster goes upside down), steep drops, or extremely banked turns (sideways). Although some coaster enthusiasts prefer wooden coasters because the ride tosses you around more making the ride feel more dangerous and giving a larger adrenaline rush.
The way roller coasters worked and their range of motion changed drastically with the invention of steel roller coasters. Tubular steel tracks started being used in the 1950’s, and are usually made out of nylon and supported by a sturdy structure made out of slightly bigger tubes. The cars on steel roller coasters sit both on top of the tubes and also along the sides, which holds the car in more securely than with wood as it goes through sharp turns and loops. Another advantage of steel over wooden roller coasters is that it it provides for a smoother ride - in wooden ones, the edge of beams cause a disruption, while in steel they are perfectly welded together.
LSM is short for Linear Synchronous Motors, which is what is used in the LSM roller coasters. They use electrical magnetic fields to shoot the car from the starting spot at a very high speed. They were developed by the roller coaster company called Intamin, and one advantage of this type of roller coaster is that this way of launching is easy to maintain. Another advantage is that the magnetic fields can be used to stop the car as well as start it.
A complete-circuit roller coaster with a height between 400 and 499 feet. There have only been two strata coasters built in the entire world. There have been others to break the 400-foot barrier, however these are not technically classified as strata because they don’t complete a full circuit. For example, the Tower of Terror II at Dreamworld is a shuttle roller coaster, not a full circuit one.

One Example of a Wooden Roller Coaster
One Example of a Strata Coaster
Kingda Ka:
-A steel accelerator roller coaster located in Jackson, New Jersey
-It is the tallest roller coaster in the world (456 ft), as well as the fastest (128 mi/h).
-It is the second strata coaster ever built.

The Beast:
-A wooden roller coaster located in Cincinnati, Ohio
-At King’s Island amusement park
-When it opened on April 14, 1979, it was the tallest, fastest, and longest roller coaster in the world
-Now it is the longest wooden roller coaster in the world (7,400 feet)
-It was made in 1979

Types of Roller Coasters
One Example of a Steel Roller Coaster
Space Mountain:
-It is a indoor, steel, space-themed ride
-Located in Magic Kingdom in La Buena Vista, FL (Disney World)
-Opened on January 15, 1975
-It was created during the Space Race, capturing the excitement of the nation over the race with the Soviet Union to get to the moon

One Example of an LSM Roller Coaster
Superman: Escape from Krypton:
-A steel shuttle roller coaster built by Intamin, but also powered by electromagnets, so it is an LSM roller coaster as well
-It is located in Six Flags Magic Mountain in Valencia, California
-It has the third longest drop in the world
Why is it necessary for each hill to be slightly smaller than the first?
Like Newton's third law states, whenever one object exerts a force on a second object the second object exerts an equal and opposite force back on the first. When going up a hill the force of gravity is exerted on the carriages but the machinery exerts an opposite force to carts; this is what causes the loose bolts and tears on the roller coasters
Additionally, riders in the car will experience an apparent increase or decrease in their body weight at the top and bottom of hills due to g-forces. As they go past each hill, their bodies will attempt to continue upward, out of the seats. For this reason, a restraining bar is necessary.
Later, track mountain brakes were developed, which meant that there didn't need to be a staff member at all times controlling the speed, although the brakes needed to be controlled by a staff member at the station. This made roller coasters more safe, so soon the out-and-back was created. Out-and-backs are relatively cheap and easy to make, which is why even to this day they’re popular. Soon after came Figure 8’s, then Twisters, and Traver rides
New Types of Roller Coasters
The Comet, a wooden out-and-back roller coaster in Hersheypark
Picture A: http://img.xcitefun.net/users/2010/07/194269,xcitefun-son-of-beast-3.jpg
Picture B: http://www.casabrian.com/images/medium/2000/longtrip/10-Great%20Escape/Comet/DSC00020.JPG
Picture C: http://www.coaster-net.com/images/ride-gallery/superman-escape-from-krypton-MDQR.jp
Picture D: http://netdna.orlandoinformer.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/z-disney-space-mountain-ride-vehicle-119.jpg
Soon, track mounted brakes were developed, and the riders were sent in a train, without a staff
Soon, track mounted brakes were developed, and the riders were sent in a train, without a staff
"History of Roller Coasters." History of Roller Coasters. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://www.coasterville.com/history.htm>.
"Out and Back Roller Coaster." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 May 2013. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Out_and_back_roller_coaster>.
"Kingda Ka." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 06 Nov. 2013. Web. 16 June 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingda_Ka>.
"Wood Roller Coaster Records." Wood Coasters. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://www.ultimaterollercoaster.com/coasters/records/wood_records.shtml>.
"Space Mountain Walt Disney World Roller Coaster." HubPages. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://awabblepajer.hubpages.com/hub/Space-Mountains>.
"How Roller Coasters Work." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/engineering/structural/roller-coaster5.htm>.

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