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TECTONICS CASE STUDIES
Transcript of TECTONICS CASE STUDIES
*CONSTRUCTIVE DESTRUCTIVE: Volcano Case Studies: SOUFRIERE HILLS: HUMAN USES OF VOLCANOES:
Mt Vesuvius, Italy HUMAN USES OF FOLD MOUNTAINS:
Chamonix, France EARTHQUAKES:
LEDC - HAITI
MEDC - JAPAN TSUNAMIS:
HOW THEY ARE FORMED AND CASE STUDY: JAPAN An example of a destructive plate margin
is the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate. CONSERVATIVE PLATE MARGIN An example of a conservative plate margin is the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. COLLISION: An example of a collision plate margin is the Eurasian Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. CONSTRUCTIVE PLATE MARGIN: An example of a constructive plate margin is the Eurasian and North American Plate. SOUFRIERE HILLS, MONTSERRAT
YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO, USA *JULY 1995-1997 *Primary Effects:
23 people died
Port and airport destroyed
Loss of crops and livestock *Secondary Effects:
Riots due to lack of aid from UK.
No tourism industry
50% of country emigrated to UK/ Antigua
Industries suffering due to no port. * Immediate and Medium Term Responses:
Location of loved ones.
Evacuation of people to Britian
Finding valuable possessions
Establishment of communications in the north.
5000 people evacuated to the north of the island.
Others evacuated to Antigua. * Long Term Responses:
Total aid sent is 200 million.
A new airport opened in 2005, but only domestic flights so no tourism.
In 1997, compensation was given to adults over 18, but they claimed it was not enough.
4 more retirement homes built as young people left the island. THIS VIDEO IS ABOUT THE PLATE BOUNDARIES!!!!!! YELLOWSTONE: As you know, Yellowstone is a supervolcano in the USA, but how is a supervolcano formed?? LOCAL:
*Danger zone within 100 mile radius-everything will be wiped out.
*People who left 30 minutes before the eruption would be killed.
*20-30 ft of volcanic ash around Yellowstone.
*This ash would collapse the rooftops in Wyoming, Utah and Montana... REGIONAL:
*North West America would be devastated with volcanic material erupting 80,000ft into the atmosphere.
*Lighter ash would drift eastwards causing death as it attacks bones and lungs.
*Dead livestock therefore rocketing food prices.
*Ash covers mid-West farmland so no crops can be grown, therefore mass starvation. Global:
*Air traffic disruption.
*Ash stays in the atmosphere for 6 years, reducing the temperature of the planet, therfore disrupting weather patterns so food is in short supply.
*Political pressures from lack of food means that riots and maybe violence could be common. MORE ON THE EFFECTS... Uses include:
*Farming due to highly fertile soil.
Yields in the Campania Region are 5 times higher than the rest of Italy. Tomatoes, wheat, maize, peaches and almonds are grown near Vesuvius. *Ruins of Pompeii
These are Italy's most popular tourist attraction, attracting 2.6 million visitors each year. This means that many people are employed in hotels, tour guides and restaurant staff. *The Volcano:
Hot springs, geysers and the volcanic crater are popular among tourists. *Sulphur:
The sulphur can be mined to create sulphuric acid, used in medicines and used to strengthen rubber (vulcanizing). In Indonesia, the workers get paid $20 an hour for collecting the sulphur. WELL, LET's FIND OUT: Did you see the tourist facilities? In CHAMONIX, France, there are many popular tourist attractions. In Winter, you can:
*Take a 2000m high cable car, Agua de Mini.
*Experience the local cuisine. In Summer you can:
*Take a scenic tram and visit the Mer de Glace Ice Cave.
*Go on the 40km of mountain biking trails. Earthquakes occur on destructive (Kobe, Japan 1995) or conservative (San Francisco, USA, 1989) plate margins. They occur when the plates suddenly move past each other. Initially, the plates stick together due to friction. When the friction is overcome, the plates jolt suddenly past each other. The actual place underground where the earthquake occurs is the focus. The epicentre is the surface of the earthquake directly above the focus. The earthquakes are measured in either the Richter or Mercalli scales, although the Richter scale is most commonly used. Watch the following video for the difference between them.... EARTHQUAKE IN AN LEDC - HAITI:
*12th January 2010, 7.0 magnitude *Primary Effects:
More than 230,000 people killed.
300,000 people injured.
70% of Port-au-Prince destroyed.
8 hospitals destroyed *Secondary Effects:
90,000 jobs lost due to building damage.
Imports limited due to damage to port/airport.
Surviving hospitals overcrowded with the injured.
Construction of shanty towns by the homeless. *Short Term Responses:
Emergency shelters created for 1 million homeless people.
International rescue teams searched for survivors.
13,000 US troops arrived to organise the relief operation.
Over $1 billion worth of aid promised to Haiti. *Long Term Responses
US engineers restore cranes, piers and buildings at the port.
Some major roads cleared around Port-au-Prince.
235,000 people relocated to towns north and south of the capital, which were unaffected. Earthquake in an MEDC: Japan *17th January 1995, 7.4 magnitude *Primary Effects:
6,343 people killed.
30,000 people injured.
10% of city destroyed. *Secondary Effects:
300m wall of fire caused by ruptured gas mains.
$220 billion damaged caused.
300,000 people homeless *Short Term Responses:
77,000 evacuated from Kobe
Motorola provided free communications
Free food provided from major supermarkets. *Long Term Responses:
Installation of sophisticated monitoring equipment.
New building codes for earthquake-proof buildings
90% of road netowrk reopened in 6 months. Why do the effects differ between LDC and MDC? IT'S ALL DOWN TO PREPARING AND PREDICITNG.... MDCS (NEW ZEALAND, JAPAN ETC.) build earthquake proof buildings due to lots of money and technology. Earthquake drills are also carried out regularly. LDCs (HAITI, CHILE, ETC) build lifesafe buildings to avoid death due to low GDPs and low technology. PREDICTING: *Scientists have established where, but not when
BUT *Recurrence intervals can be calculated.
* Radon gas is emitted prior to a quake.
*Foreshocks can precede the larger event. MEDCS HAVE THE FACILITIES TO DO THIS, BUT LEDCS DON'T.