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Transcript of Ancient Egypt
The Nile River Valley
- It is the world's longest river
- It begins as two separate rivers (Blue Nile and White Nile)
- Each Spring, the Nile would flood and leave a dark, fertile mud called Kemet.
Floods and the Black Land
- It was the Egyptian writing system
- It consisted of thousands of picture symbols, which stood for objects or ideas.
- It would be written on stone walls or papyrus.
The Rise of Government
- Early Egypt had two large kingdoms (Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt)
- Narmer united the two kingdoms.
Ancient Egypt was ruled by 31 dynasties
divided into 3 time periods: Old, Middle and New Kingdom
He is considered to be the first pharaoh
- Narmer’s descendants passed the ruling power from father to son, forming a dynasty.
Priests, officials, and nobles
Merchants and Artisans
Farmers, servants, slaves
- Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses (deities)
Isis - (mother goddess)
Osiris - god of the Underworld
Life After Death
- The Book of the Dead - collection of spells Egyptians believed they needed to enter the afterlife
- Embalming Process
- Made entirely of stone
- Built to protect the bodies dead pharaohs
- Contained burial chambers and many other special rooms
The Great Pyramid
- Built in about 2540 B.C.
- Largest pyramid in Egypt (500 ft)
- Built for King Khufu
- The 2 others next to it were built for his son (Khafre) and grandson (Menkaure)
- Egyptian were likely the first surgeons (they studied anatomy)
- Wrote the first medical book
The Middle Kingdom
- Thebes became the new capital
- Egypt conquered many lands and forced them to pay tribute to the pharaoh
- Many new carvings, statues, temples and art were done during this time.
- Were tombs cut into cliffs where the pharaohs of the Middle and New Kingdom were buried
The Valley of the Kings
The New Kingdom
- First woman pharaoh of Egypt
- She made Egypt rich through trade
- Her death
- Conquered many lands
- Made some conquered people slaves, and others had to pay tribute
- Became pharaoh at 10
- Died at age 19
Why is he famous?
- His tomb was found untouched by Howard Carter in 1922
- Often referred to as the greatest and most effective pharaoh
Built many monuments
Restored the Sphinx
Conquered many lands
- Ruled for 66 years
- Area to the south of Egypt (were trading partners for many years)
They both meet where narrow cliffs form cataracts (rocky rapids).
- It flows north
This area is called the Nile delta (fertile area at the end of a river)
Known as the "Red Land" - Eastern Desert
- Farmers learned to control floods while artisans (skilled workers) provided items for trade
Anubis - god of mummification
Horus - god of sky, son of Isis and Osiris, defeated the rival god (Seth), pharaohs are supposed to be the human form of Horus
Major god - Amon-Re (sun god)
Hapi - god of the Nile River
- Thoth - god of thought and morality
- Egyptians needed to live a good life, or else there was no afterlife
- Most people were buried in the desert. The rich were made into mummies
- Designed by the architect Imhotep
- Were step pyramids
How were they built?
- They eventually conquered Egypt
He wore a double crown to symbolize their unity
He ruled from the city of Memphis