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Transcript of Babylonian Empire
Agricultural- based society
Divided into 3 social classes — the landowners, merchants, and priests ("awilu"- ); the artisans and peasants ("mushkenu"); and the slaves ("wardu").
Political and social ties grew first out of membership in a community and second out of blood and marriage relationships.
Husbands could fit into any social class depending on their profession. The women, for the most part, were in the same social class as their husbands. The only way to move out of the lowest class is to pay off your debt
Women could hold property, engage in business, and qualify as a witness. The husband, however, could divorce her on relatively light grounds. He could also marry a second wife if she could not bare children.
Children were under the absolute authority of their parents, who could disinherit them or sell them into slavery. A man could repay a debt by turning over his family. Culture Interactions
Babylonia had many interactions with its neighbor countries. The empire was based on power and control. Babylonia was a nation with a king, like most societies of its time. It used its power to take over other other nations one by one.
Babylonia integrated many cultures and beliefs into its own, such as Egypt, Jerusalem, Judah. Egypt gave Babylonia benefits in trade routes. Babylonia integrated religious beliefs from Jerusalem, and Judah gave them knowledge in medicine. Though
all the societies gave Babylonia diversity in culture, such as food and customs.
Their main rivals were the Assyrians, and they ruled Babylonia for over 700 years. Eventually Babylon gained independence under the leadership of Nabopolassor and created the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Politics Technology
Babylonia was easily the most technologically advanced society of its time. Babylonia's technology was mostly a mixture of the previous lands that conquered them, and from the lands that they conquered themselves.
Babylonia inherited most of their Agricultural technology from the Assyrians and Sumerians. They used dikes, weirs, canals, and reservoirs for they're irrigation system. This is what molded their agriculture.
Babylonia's architecture was also very advanced. It had about a dozen large cities, which were all very populated. Akkad, one of the largest cities, had many buildings that resembled the modern day rectangular style buildings. Babylonia used mud-bricks as their main component of buildings, and was the first to use red-brick in buildings.
Babylonian art was very precious too them. They were excellent in pottery. They had many clay masks, vases, and sculptures. They were one of the first to use cosmetics such as perfumes and makeup to clear the faces of blemishes! They also had dyes and bleaches to change color.
Medicine was not Babylonia's forte, like most of the societies in that time period, but Babylonia had more success in surgeries. Though, they did have knowledge of medicinal herbs after the conquer of Judah.
Babylonia's technology in warfare was its main attribute. They used bronze and copper in most weaponry, because it was easier to forge and abundant in the region. They were the first to use war vests instead of bulky armor. They aerated their suits and knifes to make it lighter in battle, and they had a variety of swords from a scimitar, to a cress.
The Babylonians also developed a base 60 duodecimal system. Because of their advanced mathematics, they created the concept of a 24 hour day with 60 minutes in an hour and 60 seconds in a minute. They also developed the concept of 360 degrees in a circle. Economics Demographics
Babylonia Connection To Modern Day
The Babylonian civilization created many basic tenets that are the foundations of our modern world that helped shape who are today.
The Code of Hammurabi is the earliest set of written laws established by KIng Hammurabi. The set of laws included rules and penalties for economic endeavors, family matters, criminal actions, and civil disputes. Formal laws allowed civilizations to become major powers. Today, the concept of law and justice lives on in most modern day legal systems. Also, nowadays all nations have formal codes of law.
The Babylonian society made great strides in astronomy. They established the seven-day per week calender that is still in use today.
They were the first to use cosmetics to cleanse and clear skin conditions. Today, the cosmetics industry is a world wide market.
Babylon was the first soceity to transfer from armor to a war vest.
Babylonian architecture has survived, they were the first society to use red bricks in buildings. Their buildings were rectangular like most buildings in America today.
Babylonian's irrigation system still lasts today, the structure of their weirs, dikes, and canal's are still used in 3rd world countries.
Babylon has many reference in the Bible in the book of Daniel.
Developed concept of 360 degrees in a circle. Fun Facts
1. First Yo "Momma joke"
joke came from a tablet 3500 years ago.
2. The city of Babylon was massive with: Walls 60 miles around, 15 miles on each side, 300 feet high, 80 feet thick, exstending some 35 feet below the ground
3. Babylon had 5 seas as its boundaries which made them excellent in trade
4. The Hanging Gardens was a total of 56 miles long.
5. A man could sell his family into slavery to repay a debt, but for no longer than 3 years Hammurabi: the most famous ruler of Babylonia; he put most of Mesopotamia in central control
Hammurabi's Code: known as the first created set of laws; regulated adultery, incest, and marriage as well as organizing agriculture and the Babylonian economy. It shows the social class of women in ancient times- they were valued similarly to slaves within the code
After the reign of Hammurabi, Babylonia lost most of its land and was conquered by a series of different clans who reigned in dynasties, starting with the Hittites from central Anatolia.
The Medes Dynasty: the final dynasty of Babylonia
-Nebuchadnezzar II was the most successful king of this dynasty
- He created the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and is known in the bible for destroying Jerusalem and carrying the Jews into captivity
The Babylonian Empire fell when the Persian king, Cyrus the Great, conquered it in 539 BCE. Babylonia was an ancient empire that existed in the Near East in Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Babylon is the capitol city of Babylonia. The word "Babylon" is an Akkadian word that means "the gate of Gods. Major Babylonian kings were Nebuchadnezzar 11 and Hammurabi. The Assyrians overpowered the Babylonians for about 700 years, but Nabopolassor, leader of Babylonia, gained back its independence. Nebuchadnezzar 11, took over the empire after his father Nabopolassor and created the golden era of Babylonia. The Assyrians were considered the main Babylonian rivals. The Sumarian Culture was the basis for the Babylonian Culture. Babylonia achieved a high level of Civilization. Babylonian literature was dominated by mythology and legends. Literature was used to glorify their god Marduk. In one myth Marduk created Heaven and Earth from the corpse of the goddess Tiamat. They used art for the national celebration of great events and for the glorification of the gods. The art expressed realism and spontaneity in the depiction of animals. The basic units in Babylonian society were the family and tribe. Class of a person was determined by the family. They spoke various dialects of Akkadian, and adoped the written language of cuneiform from the Sumerians. Wives had some important legal rights such as holding property, engaging in business, and qualify as a witness Major pieces of architecture include the Ishtar Gate and The Tower of Bable Ishtar Gate Tower of Babel Marduk Religion
Main god: Marduk, the protector of kingship who fought an army of demons led by the goddess of Tiamat.
Second most important gods include the sky god, An (or Anu); the god of storm and earth, Enlil; and the water god, Ea (or Enki).
Next- - the moon god, Nanna (or Sin); the sun god, Utu (or Shamash); and the goddess of fertility and war, Inanna (also called Ishtar).
Babylonians made a new creation myth, the Enuma Elish ("The Epic of Creation"), to make Marduk the most important god.
The humans were viewed as servants to the gods. They also needed to please the gods to receive protection.
Rituals were important for warding off evil spirits and to fortell the future to ensure the good will of the gods, and to protect against demons.
Organized Mesopotamian religion collapsed after Cyrus of Persia, a Zoroastrian, conquered the Babylonian empire in 539 BCE.
The Tower of Babel was an example of how the Babylonians tried to reach the heavens to contact the gods.
The Bible references Babylonia throughout the Old Testament. The Babylonian economy was mainly based on grain farming
They also cultivated fruits and vegetables
Meat was rare, even though they consumed many dairy products
Industry and trade was well developed when Babylonia had strong central power
They exported many goods, mainly textiles, to other parts of the Middle East and brought back goods such as wood, metal, and stone that was not available in Babylonia
Most of their traded goods came from trade in egypt. It gave Babylon goods from sub-saharan Africa. The empire rained from about 2000 BCE to 500 BCE. The Babylonian Empire was located in the middle and southern part of Mesopotamia. The capital city of Babylon was situated on the Euphrates River about 50 mile south of modern day Bagdad. The city was the focal point of the Babylonian population.
The Sumarians were the earliest known inhabitants of Mesopotamia.
The first records indicate that Babylon may have been established as a city around the 23th century BCE, and it was ruled by kings of the city of Ur. The Amorites then began migrating into the region.
The primary patterns of settlement of the region included the Sumerians and Akkadians from Mesopotamia, then the Amorites durung the Old Babylonian Period and the Hammurabi Empire, then the Hittites from Asia Minor, then the Kassites from northeast Mesopotamia, and then the Assyrians.
When the Sumerians and Akkadians assimilated, their languages merged until Akkadian became the commonly spoken language in Babylonia.
The population was difficult to estimate because there was no census, but cities may have ranged from 10,000-50,000 and Babylon may have been the first city to reach over 200,000. Bibliography See hard copy attachment Works Cited See hard copy attachment