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Central Nervous System

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Manon Harmer

on 11 May 2017

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Transcript of Central Nervous System

Central Nervous System
By: Angel and Manon
.
The brain is made up of 3 parts; the brain stem, cerebellum, and cerebrum. And the cerebrum is divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe.
Brain Anatomy
Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Temporal lobe
Cerebellum
Occipital lobe
Brain stem
Brain stem
The brain stem includes the mid brain, pons, and medulla. It acts as a relay center connecting the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord. It performs many automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, body temperature, wake and sleep cycles, digestion, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing. Ten of the twelve cranial nerves originate in the brain stem
.


The surface of the cerebrum is called
the cortex. The cortex contains neurons
(grey matter), the cerebrum has more nurons then the rest of the brain cobined. The cortex has a folded appearance. A fold is called a gyrus and the groove between is a sulcus. The folding of the cortex increases the brain’s surface area allowing more neurons to fit inside the skull and enabling higher functions. There are names
for the folds and grooves that help
define specific brain regions.

Medulla is the inner region of an organ or tissue, especially when it is recognizable from the outer region or cortex (like in a kidney, an adrenal gland, or even hair).
Cerebrum

Occipial lobe
The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of a mammal brain containing most of the visual cortex region. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 (visual one). Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine
Frontal lobe
Temperal lobe
The location of the temporal lobe is near the bottom middle part of cortex, right behind the temples. The function of the temporal lobe is to be responsible for processing auditory information from the ears (hearing).
The Temporal Lobe mainly revolves around hearing and selective listening. It receives sensory information such as sounds and speech from the ears. It is also key to being able to comprehend, or understand meaningful speech. In fact, we would not be able to understand someone talking to us, if it wasn't for the temporal lobe.
The location of the frontal lobe is near the Frontal and upper area of the cortex. The function of the frontal lobe Carries out higher mental processes such as thinking, decision making, and planning. You use it to make decisions, such as what to eat or drink for breakfast in the morning, as well as for thinking or studying for a test. The frontal lobe is also where your personality is formed. In addition, the frontal lobe is necessary for help making you able to speak fluently (without fault) and meaningfully.
The frontal lobe is the largest of the brain structures.
Possibal disorders formed in the frontal lobe include
Skizofenia,ADHD and bioplarity.

Symptoms . . .
Whats is Alzheimer’s?
Alzheimer's is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. Symptoms usually develop slowly and get worse over time, becoming severe enough to interfere with daily tasks.
Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe enables some very special needed functions. As it is a part of the cortex, it has a lot of responsibilities and has to be able to process sensation information within seconds. The parietal lobe is where information such as taste, temperature and touch are integrated, or processed. Humans would not be able to to feel sensations of touch, if the parietal lobe was damaged or removed. Whithout it we would not be able to feel sensation when touching things.
What is the central nervous system?
The central nervous system (CNS) controls most functions of the body and mind. It consists of two parts: the brain and the spinal cord.
Some of the symptoms of early onset Alzheimer's include:
Difficulty remembering newly learned information
Disorientation
Mood and behavior changes
Confusion of past and future events
Time and place
Unfounded suspicions about family, friends and caregivers
Difficulty speaking,
Swallowing and
Walking.
It is the damage and death of nerve cells that causes memory failure, personality changes, problems carrying out daily activities and other symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
Neurons
The brain has over 100 billion nerve cells called neurons. Each neuron connects with many others to form communication networks. Certain groups of neurons have special jobs. Some are involved with thinking, learning and remembering. Others help us see, hear and smell. Cells also process and store information and communicate with other cells. Keeping everything running requires coordination as well as large amounts of fuel and oxygen to run.
The brain is the center of our thoughts, the interpreter of our external environment, and the origin of control over body movement. Like a central computer, it interprets information from our eyes , ears , nose , tongue , and skin, as well as from internal organs such as the stomach.
The Brain
The Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is the highway for communication between the body and the brain. When the spinal cord is injured, the exchange of information between the brain and other parts of the body is disrupted.
Spinal cord
The spinal cord and meninges are contained in the spinal canal, which runs through the center of the spine. In most adults, the spine is composed of 26 individual back bones (vertebrae). Just as the skull protects the brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord. The vertebrae are separated by disks made of cartilage, which act as cushions, reducing the forces generated by movements such as walking and jumping.
Our resources
http://www.mayfieldclinic.com/PE-AnatBrain.htm
https://www.christopherreeve.org/living-with-paralysis/health/how-the-spinal-cord-works
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0072652/
http://www.spinalcordinjuryzone.com/answers/8485/how-does-the-spinal-cord-work
http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_what_is_alzheimers.asp
http://www.merckmanuals.com/en-ca/home/brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/biology-of-the-nervous-system/spinal-cord
Fun Facts!
The average length of your spinal cord is about 19 inches and it contains about 13,500,000 neurons. The communication between the brain and other parts of the body is carried out through the spinal cord.
The average weight of an adult male brain is 1375 g, but it is lighter for women and weighs around 1275 g only.
The nervous system can transmit nerve impulses as fast as 100 meters per second, and in some cases, the speed of transmission is around 180 miles per hour.
A newborn's brain grows three times within the first year after birth. Your brain loses a gram every year, as you grow old.
A man's brain has 6.5 times more gray matter as compared to women, but a woman's brain has 10 times more white matter as compared to men.
Your nervous system cannot function properly in the absence of potassium and sodium ions. Vitamin B is equally essential for your nervous system.
It will make a line as long as 600 miles if you line up all the neurons in your body.
No more than 4% of your brain cells are used for most of the tasks.
The human brain makes use of 100 billion neurons to receive information from the nervous system, interpret it and send signals to different areas of your body.
The left side of your brain controls the right side of your body and the right side of your brain controls the left side of your body.
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