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History- Roaring 20s

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Harris Nageswaran

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of History- Roaring 20s

The Roaring 20s The United States of America Isolationism Inequality Second Industrial Revolution Religion Racially Economy Politically End of World War 1 Federal Government Political Parties State Government 50 governments
Own laws- differ from others (e.g. death penalty)
Dislike Federal Interference
Elected Governor- like President of a State
State Court
State Legislature- like mini government Two main parties The USA was reluctant to enter WW1
Traditionally isolationist (why change?)
Already lost over 100,000 men in European war
Wide ethnic mix (alienation by choosing sides)
League of Nations is a blank cheque (sucks money)
Powers taken away from Congress
Treaty of Versailles is controversial Wilson supported free trade - no tariffs or quotas
Republicans in power now- End free trade
1922- Fordney-McCumber tariff- very expensive for Europeans to import into America (Europe fails)
Other countries retaliate- Set up their own tariffs
USA has strong products and consumer-base to rely on

The USA lent the allies 10.25 billion dollars
Europe suggest interest and debt be cancelled
Coolidge refuses Fear of Russian-style communist revolution
Increase in Russian immigrants (refugees from Russia)
Fear of Trojan Horse
Terrorist bomb goes off in Wall Street
Fear of rising threat of Communism
Attorney-General Parma starts the "Parma Raids"
Anyone suspected of being Communist arrested
Parma's house is firebombed
Launches the "Red Raids"
6000 people are arrested, sacked or outed
Including several Congressmen Cars
New consumer durables- Fridges, Vacuum Cleaners, Radios 1905- overtakes Britain as biggest Industrial power
Makes consumer goods
Electricity- Fossil fuels
Chemical Industries- Polyester, cellaphane, bakelite, rayon, nylon
Communications- Telephones Urban America- Freer, less stress placed on religion
Rural America- Very strong fundamentalists
Immigrants have a mixture of faiths (eg. Italians and Irish are Catholic whereas British are Protestant)

Evolution- Challenges Christianity
Certain states in the "Bible Belt" ban its teaching- Butler Act Specification Introduction Federal Government President The Supreme Court Congress Very powerful
Directly elected by the people (Every 4 years)
No limit on number of offices (until after FDR)
Head Of State
Head of Government (Executive)
Commander in Chief of Army Senate House of
Representatives 2 senators per state
100 in total
Very Powerful
Elected every 6 years Calculated proportionally to the population
Larger states have more representatives
Less powerful
Elected every 2 years (every other year) Amend Constitution
Very Old
When they die the President elects a new Judge
Biased towards either Democrats or Republicans Republican Democrat More right wing
Anti-Federal Government
Strongly Pro-Business
Free Market Capitalism
Low Taxes
In power from 1919 to 1933 Less right wing
More prone to a little intervention
More likely to intervene in world affairs
More likely to marginally increase taxes
In power from 1933-1954 Socially and Economically Land of Immigrants
USA-Land of Opportunity
If you fail- your fault
Strongly Racist
Hierarchy: 1. White Anglo Saxon Protestants (NW Europe)
2. Southern Europeans
3. Eastern Europeans
4. Jews
5. Native Americans
6. Blacks America had clearly overtaken Britain and Germany in industry
Highest Standard of Living
1% owned 50% of America's money
Highly powerful trusts: Ford- Motor Cars
Rockefeller- Oil
Van der Bilt- Railways
Guggenheim- Metal
Carnegie- Minerals 1920 general election, main policy is Treaty of Versailles (for or against)
Hardy vs. Wilson
Wilson withdraws with a heart attack
Treaty of Versailles not ratified Sacco & Vanzetti Case 15 April 1920- Armed Robbery takes place- 2 men are killed
2 poor Italian immigrants are suspected- Both are anarchists
Found close to the crime scene- Arrested on suspicion

May 1921- Trial- Sacco and Vanzetti did not speak much English
Evidence- Anarchists, in vicinity, own the same gun as used in the robbery- Circumstantial
Had 107 witnesses supporting their alibi that they were somewhere else
61 eyewitnesses saying that they were the people who committed the crime
Judge Thayer- Strongly anti-Communist- Gave death sentence

Appealed for 6 years- Unsuccessful
Widespread coverage- Reported all over world
Demonstrations all over the world- American Embassy in Paris is bombed
24 August 1927- Put to the Electric Chair The Monkey Trial
1925 The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) asked John Scopes to illegally teach evolution to argue the Butler Act to be unconstitutional
He was defended by Clarence Darrow, a famous criminal lawyer (and agnostic)
The trial concentrated on whether the Bible should be taken literally or not and was widely reported by the press
John Scopes was found guilty of teaching evolution but the case was seen as a victory for the modernists and ACLU Immigration Feel that Europe is getting rid of their worst citizens by sending them to America (eg. communists and antiestablishmentarianists)
1917- Immigration Act-Have to read a 40 word passage
1921- Emergency Quota Act- 357,000 per annum
1924- 3% of 1910 ethnic figure allowed (no Asians) :(
1939- Only 150,000 allowed Boom New Industries Electricity-1916: 16%
-1927: 63%
have access to electricity Mass Production Making products more efficiently and quickly
Henry Ford production line
Streamlined the expensive process making a car
Model-T: First mass produced car
Moving assembly line- One person, one job
14hours before become 93 minutes after
Cost- $850 in 1914 become $295 in 1920
Can buy "on the margin" (borrow money from bank and pay it off monthly) The Car Impact of the Car Gave huge freedom to people to travel (visit relatives, go to cinema, have affairs, get away from police)
Rise of suburbs as people able to commute to work (no longer need to live near work)
5 million employed in car industry directly
Supports the steel, rubber, glass, oil and leather industry as well
Creation of new industries- Road construction, petrol stations and motels
1 in 3 families owned a car Ford Model T Other industries Picture Palace Sport Cinema Advertising Transport Construction Shops The transport sector was one of the the fastest growing and most crucial industries. Improvements in communications and logistics were vital for mass production Roads
Aircraft Doubled in number between 1920 and 1930

Tripled to 3.5 million from 1920 to 1929

Made 162,000 flights from 1920 to 1929 The rapid industrial growth of America pushed up demand for new factories, showrooms, office buildings, shops and headquarters. Even more people were employed in the construction of motoring infrastructure (roads, petrol stations, motels etc.) Big companies wanted to show their wealth and power by building Skyscrapers. Companies competed to build bigger and taller buildings. Famous examples include the Empire State (top right), the Rockefeller Centre (bottom right) and the Chrysler Building (left). The advertising industry was created to promote the vast array of mass-produced products, but it soon grew as a huge market in itself
The industry grew rapidly, pioneering catchy slogans and colourful images
Soon advertising was not restricted to billboards; magazines and radios were perfect to promote products to specific audiences An example of brilliant advertising Shopping was also affected by mass production; clothing shops realised that most men and women fitted specific sizes and mass produced clothes in those sizes
New synthetic materials such as rayon and nylon were cheaper and had advantages over natural materials (easy to mass produce)
Mail order companies such as Sears, Roebuck and Co delivered goods directly to your home which you ordered using a catalog
1/3 of Americans bought clothes from Sear, Roebuck and Co
Total clothing sales in the USA increased 427% in the 1920s As people got richer and had more leisure time, they spent spent more money on sport
Baseball was the most popular sport in the 1920s
Babe Ruth, a baseball player, became a national icon
Millions of dollars was lost and won in gambling
Football (American) and Boxing were also popular spectator sports
Huge stadiums were built to accommodate tens of thousands of fans Sport Hollywood was the centre of the movie-making world
Each town had its own "Picture Palace"
People went to the cinema 2 or 3 times a week
By 1930, 100 million tickets were being sold every week
Comedies were the most popular and (easiest to make) films
Films were notorious for portraying sex more freely
Pressure was apllied on Hollywood and the Hays Code was set up restricting sexual freedom onscreen
The film industry was also supported by magazines which were devoted to the actresses and actors
As a result many film stars became icons; Rudolph Valentino, Clara Bow and perhaps most famous of all Charlie Chaplin, became household names Music The 1920s were also called the Jazz age because Jazz, Soul and Blues became the biggest genres of music at the time
Black Migration to the cities brought their music with them
Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong and Billie Holiday were some famous Jazz musicians
New, faster dances followed (e.g. Charleston)
The older and more conservative sects believed that Jazz was a corrupting influence Women Women were becoming freer in the 1920s
More and more women had jobs; they were cheaper to employ than men
Women's clothing had become less conservative, shorter and more daring
A large minority of women had short hair symbolizing their freedom, and more were wearing make-up and smoking; these people were called "flappers"
Middle Class women had more time on their hand thanks to appliances such as vacuum cleaners and washing machines
The car freed women from the home, allowing them to visit friends and go into town
Advertising targeted women (Henry Ford stopped his black only policy for cars to appeal to women Not all women were this free;
Lower Class
Older Generation
Conservative Christian
Women in all the above were not this free

The Anti-Flirt League campaigned to keep women moral;
They stopped badly dressed women
They stopped young women who were talking to men without a chaperone
They tried to get the police arrest women in new figure-hugging bathing-suits Groups that didn't participate in Prosperity Farmers; producing too much food so prices are driven down
Blacks and New Immigrants; replaced in business for cheaper white women; discrimination still rife; left with low pay jobs
Older Industries; new (artificial) materials competing; not modernising (mass production) The Birth of a Nation by DW Griffiths- Popular film (first blockbuster movie). Portrays black people as violent and the KKK as heroes.

1920- 100,000 members
1925- 5,000,000 members

The KKK attracted extremists who believed that only WASPs should be allowed to live in America; they discriminated against Blacks, Communists, Jews, Catholics and all foreigners.

The KKK was very popular in the South where mobs would burn homes, tar and feather people, and in certain circumstances, castrate and lynch people. In certain areas they had the support of the police, judges, governors. The Trade With Klansmen (TWK) scheme weakened the businesses of non-Klansmembers, forced people to join

Aimed to intimidate and force groups they did not like to move to another area, state or country Collapse After 1925- Rapid decline in the number of members
Triggered by the leader of the Klan in the state of Indiana, DC Stephenson, being put on trial for raping and mutilating Madge Oberholzer (she was covered in vicious bite marks)
He expected to get off lightly (he knew the Governor of Indiana through the Klan)
Received a large sentence; in his anger revealed publically all officials who were members
Rapid drop in membership Failures Prohibition Why?
Linked with poverty, crime and disease
Religion- Strongly Protestant community - equates alcohol with sin
By 1918 - 75% of states already "dry" (no alcohol)
WW1 - Alcohol is made from grain which is needed to feed allies and soldiers
Discrimination - Brewers were German

January 1918 - 18th Amendment passed
Sale of Alcohol banned

January 1920 - Volstead Act passed
Defines what an alcoholic drink was Why does it fail? Lack of public support (forcing the views of a minority on a majority); speakeasies (illegal pubs/bars) increase in number
Government loses major tax avenue
Brewing industry increases elsewhere (Canada, West Indies, Mexico) as it is easy to cross border
Gangs run speakeasies and bribe law enforcers (police, judges, politicians); become rich
Hard to enforce - Only 4500 prohibition agents for 100 million people, 10% sacked in first year for corruption Organized Crime Prohibition - $2 billion turnover (in 1920s money)
Gangs run the bootlegging (illegal alcohol smuggling) business
Immigrants brought over Mafia from Sicily
Every major city has its own gang:
New York - Dutch Schultz
Detroit - Chester Le Mare
Chicago - O'Bannion vs Al Capone Al Capone Son of poor Italian immigrants Bribed the Mayor of Chicago, Big Bill Johnson
Richest Gang - $60 million per year
Has a 700 man private army
Brings glamour to Chicago
Charitable - Runs soup kitchen for poor Fight for Chicago against O'Bannion gang (led by Bugs Moran)
Orders them killed
St Valentine Day Massacre
7 men killed in plain daylight
Went too far FBI led by J Edgar Hoover get Al Capone on tax evasion. Sentenced to 11 years. Head of the 5 Points Gang Crash Stock Exchange collapses
Unequal distribution of wealth
Overproduction of products (mass production) and not enough buyers
Cannot export as other countries have put up tariffs (retaliation to Fordney McCumber)
Hire Purchase (buying on the margin); large increase in number of stockholders, prices triple (not worth that much)
People realise and start selling, everyone sells, stock exchange collapses Timeline of Events 3,488,100 shares bought and sold
Prices begin to fall 19th October
1929 25th October
1929 12,894,650 shares traded

Wild scramble as prices plummeted and buyers could not be found Bankers meet and try to stabilize market
Well known bankers buy shares at inflated prices
Confidence returning? 24th October 1929 9,212,800 shares sold and bought

Continuation of frenzy selling at falling prices 28th October
1929 16,410,030 share traded

Worst day of trade ever as panic sets in and eveeryone one loses confidence 29th October
1929 Effects Unemployment- Overproduction, no need to make any more; workers sacked
Homelessness- Banks recall in all loans; if unable to pay, home repossessed
Starvation- Caused by the two above, no money to pay for food
Exams- AQA decides to make another section on the Depression - Yay! FIN www.twitter.com/iamtheonlyH
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