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The French Revolution
Transcript of The French Revolution
The Revolution Begins
The American Revolution had an immediate effect on many people in France.
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
In 1788, food shortages and rising prices caused great discontent throughout France.
A Republic In FRANCE
The National Convention ended the Monarchy and made France a republic. A new constitution was set up and it allowed every man the right to vote.
Wow!! You guys are AWESOME!!
France also wanted political
changes based on the ideas of
freedom and equality.
The French revolution began in 1789.
It dramatically changed France and
all of Europe.
THE CAUSES FOR THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
In the 1700s, France was one of the most powerful countries in Europe. French kings ruled with absolute power and had his "people" separated into 3 estates.
a social class in France
before the French
This system determined a person's legal
rights and social standing. It also created
great inequality in French society
The First Estate was the Catholic Clergy
, or church officials.
They did not pay taxes, and they received money from the church congregations.
The Second Estate was the nobles.
They held the highest posts in the military and in government. Like the clergy, the nobles paid no taxes
. They lived in luxury at the king's court or in their country houses surrounded by large areas of land.
The Third Estate were the Bourgeoisie.
This class was the remainder of the community.
It was made up of merchants, bankers, doctors, lawyer, teachers, and every other occupation. This group had no voice in government decisions, and it made up roughly 80% of the population.
As the Middle class learned more
about Enlightenment ideas, they began to resent the privileges of the nobles and clergy.
At the same time, the French government was almost bankrupt because of costly wars and rising expenses put on by the king.
French banks became reluctant to lend money to the government. The king got desperate for money so he ASKED for help from the nobles and clergy by paying taxes.
They said NO WAY!
Can I please have
When these groups refused, the King called a meeting of the country's legislature, the
A political group made up of representatives from all three estates.
If the Estates General agreed, then the King could impose new taxes.
In the Estates-General, the nobles and clergy
refused to give up their privileges, including
not paying taxes.
Frustrated, the delegates of the Third Estate decided to meet separately. They formed a new group- the NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, and agreed not to break up until they wrote a constitution for France.
The National Assembly made France a constitutional Monarchy.
France was to be ruled be ruled by an elected legislature.
The King (LOUIS XVI) however, refused to accept these changes and tried to leave Paris. Let's just say he was unsuccessful.... full story to come.
King Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette were found guilty by the National Convention of "aiding France's enemies"
and this is what happened...
The execution of the king of France startled the other European monarchs. They become threatened by this new French Revolution, so they attack France in hopes that they can end this REVOLUTION!!
The people of France united under their new-found constitution and anyone that was against it were decapitated, just as the King was. Nearly 40,000 people were found "guilty" this is known as the
Reign of Terror
All men between the ages of 18 and 25 were forced to sign-up for the military.
The Republic's army grew very strong and really didn't have any worries about invading countries because France had nearly 1,000,000 troops.
With the Republic out of danger, people of France wanted to end the Reign of Terror. France elected new leaders and they set up a more moderate policy. The new policies were not stable enough to help those people that were starving and poor so they DEMANDED new leadership.
Napoleon Leads France
Who was Napoleon Bonaparte?
OH WAIT... That's not him
Let's try again
What are we
going to do??!!
There's no FOOD!
was designed by Dr. Joseph Guillotine to make executions quick and more humane.
Instead, it came to represent harshness and fear during the French Revolution.
took power in a coup d'état on 11/9/1799 and installed himself as First Consul or leader. In 1804 he made himself emperor of the French people. He fought a series of wars later named the Napoleonic Wars. He had lots of people that were for and against him.
Napoleon Bonaparte is the most famous French leader of all time. His dedication to the expansion of his "empire" made him a well respected leader, so much that even his enemies did not kill him.
Instead of killing him, Napoleon was captured after invading a freezing cold Russian empire. Once caught they sent him to an island called Elba.
Bonaparte escaped Elba and returned to France
where he reestablished his army and invaded Waterloo, Belgium. He was defeated by England and France was over Napoleon's reign and was again sent away to another island
by his own peopl
This island was called St. Helena. It is located in the southern Atlantic Ocean, where he died in 1821.
Analyze the painting: How
did the artist make Napoleon
look like a powerful leader?
Since the French Revolution was getting out of hand in Europe, French leaders wanted to return to peace and stability.
Hoping to crush revolutionary ideas, Congress restored the royal families who had ruled in Europe before Napoleon Bonaparte took over.
European leaders did a few things that helped in the restoration of Europe.
1.) Redrew Europe's borders (France lost Napoleons captured territory) it went from this
2.) France had to pay countries they invaded war damages.
a change of government in which a new group of leaders seize power by force.