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4-1 Warring-States Indian Economy

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by

Kelly Olds

on 2 October 2017

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Transcript of 4-1 Warring-States Indian Economy

Urbanization & Population growth
Warring-States Indian Economy
Growing Complexity
Village growth
Irrigated farming replaces pastoralism
Private property in land
Indus Civilization
2500-1500 BC
2nd Urbanization
600 BC
Southern Urbanization
300 BC
Was the expansion driven by iron?
iron cuts down forests
iron plows the land
iron allows double-cropped rice
Fire can clear the land
Most farming is still done
with digging sticks
Increasing Inequality
Early texts record the emergence of wage labor
Archeology shows large & small farms
wages in pana per ??
Arthashastra
Prime Minister 48,000
Guild Master 8,000
Doctor 2,000
Fortune Teller 1,000
Scribe/Accountant 500
Professional Soldier 500
Craftsman 120
Servant 60
Cost of subsistence 26-50
Inequality is not necessarily bad...
Coinage
The use of coins suggest an increase in market transactions
Taxes are now taken in money, instead of in kind
Most economists see such commercialization as good
Allows flexibility & more division of labor
Some historians see commercialization as bad
The self-sufficient are harder to exploit
Guilds
India--"the home of the guild" (?)
Craftsmen live together on a street or in a village
With a weak state, guilds needed for protection & each had a militia
Guilds set prices, wages & negotiated over costs with other guilds
To control prices, one must also set quantity & quality standards
Cartels often lead to stasis
Often guilds also had a temple for solidarity (& for banking)
Merchant guilds were important (but very different & not well understood)
Government
More taxes, bigger army, bigger bureaucracy
Government monopolies
Salt
Mines: metals & precious stone
Government workshops
Prisoners or slaves
Poor, disabled, widows, orphans
A wealthy aristocacy serviced by many
craftsmen who specialize in luxuries
Just like Han China: Why?
Urbanization Breaks Traditional Bonds
Religious
Revolution

The historic causes of inequality...
Competition
Foundation
Enforced Rule of Law
The Warring-States Model
Organizational economies of scale
Big fish eat small fish
or they are eaten by bigger fish

China & the Mediterranean
Creative (but cruel) periods
The disintegration model
Military or civil
Full transcript