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Francis Bacon: Theory of Induction/Theory of the 4 Idols of

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Jennifer Agyeman

on 16 January 2014

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Transcript of Francis Bacon: Theory of Induction/Theory of the 4 Idols of

The Theory of the four Idols.
Philosopher Sir Francis Bacon created a
doctrine
called “The 4 Idols of the Mind” which addresses all of the errors, illusions, and corruptions which mentally prevents many people from having a true understanding of nature and reality.
Francis Bacon: Theory of Induction, Novum Organum, Theory of the 4 Idols of the Mind.
By: Shanessa & Jennifer
The Idols of the Tribe
The Idols of the Tribe is also referred as the natural tendency of human nature. According to Francis Bacon, the Idols of the Tribe are the errors, and false notions that we do everyday because it is inherited in our nature and our mind.

Some of these characteristics that is in inherited in our human nature is that we:
- Over exaggerate
-Over Analyze
- Making Assumptions without evidence
-
Distortion
- and
Malfunction
Idols of the Tribe cont.
When these characteristics start to establish, our imaginations start creating false notions in our minds, making our minds deceive us, and as a result we question of what is morally right or wrong.
Idols of the Cave
The second doctrine Francis Bacon introduces in this theory is called The Idols of the Cave. The Idols of the Cave are the individual's tastes, habits, and prejudices.

An example of an Idol of the Cave which are one of Francis Bacon's examples is that some minds are more drawn to new things and new ideas than they are to what has been around for a long time, while other minds are more drawn to "tradition" and "old school" than they are to new ideas and new ways.

Francis Bacon believes that we should become aware of our natural tendencies so that we can make corrections for it. He hopes that by becoming aware of our own mind's tendencies toward loving newness or tradition that we might be able to "correct" for them, and then hopefully see things in a more clearer perspective.
Idols of the Market-Place
The third doctrine Francis Bacon introduces in his theory is called The Idols of the Market Place. The Idols of the Market-Place are errors and natural tendencies of every individual who use certain languages such as profanity, or slang when communicating with others or in an argument. When we use the wrong type of context, it creates the opposite approach of what you actually really meant to say.


Idols of the Market-Place cont.
According to Francis Bacon, “The Idols of the Marketplace are the most troublesome of all.” This statement is fundamentally true because when we misinterpret the words, it leads to misunderstandings and confusions which can bring many arguments and false understandings within the conversation.
The four Idols of the Mind
The 4 Idols of the Mind Francis Bacon invented are:
- The Idols of the Tribe
-The Idols of the Cave
-The Idols of the Market-Place
-The Idols of the Theatre
Francis Bacon believes that in order of gaining full knowledge of understanding, we must go through the obstacles of the four idols of the mind.
Idols of the Theatre cont.
The Idol of the Theatre manipulates and deceives many people all over the world because of the false teachings people were taught, or falsely believed in.

Francis Bacon thinks we should become aware of how these world views shape and distort our own perceptions of the world so that we might be able to correct for it a bit.
Idols of the Theatre
The last doctrine Francis Bacon introduces in his theory is called The Idols of the Theatre. The Idols of the Theatre is the false learning from scientific beliefs, theories, religion and our system.
Sir Francis Bacon Background
Francis Bacon was an English Philosopher and statesman, born on 22 January 1561 in London, England. He studied at Cambridge University, as well as became a member of Parliament in 1584. He was attorney general, and Lord Chancellor of England.Francis Bacon had many works, one of his most famous was the
Novum Organum
, which includes Bacon's ideas about the
Four Idols of the Mind
, and his theory of
Induction
. Francis Bacon died on April 9, 1626 of Bronchitis, while performing a series of experiences on ice. Bacon is still known as a major figure in scientific methods and natural philosophy during the English Renaissance.
Francis Bacon Background cont
.
Francis Bacon was interested in science, and most of the science was based on Aristotelian methodology. Bacon decided to challenge Aristole's ideas, which was the use of the
authoritative
method. Bacon brought up an argument that truth should be acquired from evidence of the real world. His argument was an
empirical
and inductive approach known as the scientific method. This Inductive approach is the foundation of scientific inquiry.


“A little philosophy inclineth man's mind to atheism, but depth in philosophy bringeth men's minds about to religion.” - Francis Bacon
• Latin for
“New Organon”
or
“New Instrument”
• Published in 1620, and is known to be one of Francis Bacon's best philosophical works


Significance

• accelerated the inductive method for science and philosophical inquiry.
• In this book, are Bacon's summarized effects of observation, with the fundamental standards of scientific inquiry.
• In this book he shows that he is not in favor of “anticipation of nature”, but is in favor of “interpretation of nature”, which leads into inductive reasoning and the collection of facts/data.

NOVUM ORGANUM
Inductive Reasoning

according to the dictionary, Inductive Reasoning is: reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
method that Francis Bacon created to gather data, and therefore resulting with a general conclusion
Used to interpret nature, by observation and experience
described as the fundamental foundation of scientific method, as well as the correct tool for properly interpreting nature

Deductive vs Inductive


Deductive syllogism is logical process of drawing specific conclusions from general premises
• This method was used during Bacon's time to interpret nature, and he then brought up the process of inductive reasoning.
• . For example, A = B. C = A. Therefore, C = B.

• Inductive reasoning begins with general propositions, and works its way backwards (deduction). For lack of better terms, this basically means to think big, and work your way down
• For example: “All new cars are shiny” = a general proposition. “All new Jeeps are shiny” or “All new Honda's are shiny” = Mid-axioms

Inductive Issue and Resolution

• If a general axiom is proven to be false, then the mid-axioms would be considered false as well
• Each level of axioms is acquired through observation and experience. Until each axiom has been observed and concluded, the most general axiom cannot be reached until the end.
• A better explanation, is saying instead of beginning with a general conclusion, one must experience, observe and acquire data, before reaching an final interpretation

Novum Organum:
The book Francis Bacon published that describes about Francis Bacon's best philosophical works, Induction, Four Idols of the Mind, etc.
Four Idols of the Mind:
The four theories Bacon created which are Idols of the Tribe, Idols of the Cave, Idols of the Market-Place, & Idols of the Theatre.
Doctrine:
Is a set of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles, or positions
Distortion:
A distortion is a change, twist, or exaggeration that makes something appear different from the way it really is.
Malfunction:
Crash or breakdown.
Induction:
Method that Francis Bacon created to gather data, and therefore resulting with a general conclusion.
Notion:
A conception of or belief about something.
Empirical:
Based on observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic.
Authoritative Method:
Discussing a subject long enough and eventually discovering the truth.
Description of Words
According to Ethics he knew the difference between duty to the community, which involves ethical matter, and duty to God which is religious relevance. He believed that whatever is done (your actions) is through human will or free will, and that happens through belief and passion. He also believed that good habits are what help men to direct their lives according to that which is good, as well as he knew that characters and situaions can change. This relates back to the quote on the title page "a little philosophy inclineth man’s mind to Atheism but depth in philosophy bringeth men’s minds about to religion".
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