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Aaron Bruewer

on 10 September 2018

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Transcript of AGENDA

1. Welcome to EDMUL 205!
Sign in!

Four Principles
Four Dimensions
Four Values
School Conditions
Cultural Pluralism

Social Justice

Cultural Affirmation in Teaching and Learning

Educational Equity and Excellence for ALL students

An equity pedagogy exists when teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, socioeconomic, and language groups. This includes using a variety of teaching styles and approaches that are consistent with the range of learning styles within various cultural and ethnic groups, such as being demanding but highly personalized when working with American Indian and Native Alaskan students. It also includes using cooperative learning techniques in math and science instruction to enhance the academic achievement of students of color.
An equity pedagogy rejects the cultural deprivation paradigm that was developed in the early 1960s. This paradigm posited that the socialization experiences in the home and community of low-income students prevented them from attaining the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for academic success. Because the cultural practices of low-income students were viewed as inadequate and inferior, cultural deprivation theorists focused on changing student behavior so that it aligned more closely with mainstream school culture. An equity pedagogy assumes that students from diverse cultures and groups come to school with many strengths.
Multicultural theorists describe how cultural identity, communicative styles, and the social expectations of students from marginalized ethnic and racial groups often conflict with the values, beliefs, and cultural assumptions of teachers. The middle-class mainstream culture of the schools creates a cultural dissonance and disconnect that privileges students who have internalized the school's cultural codes and communication styles.
Teachers practice culturally responsive teaching when an equity pedagogy is implemented. They use instructional materials and practices that incorporate important aspects of the family and community culture of their students. Culturally responsive teachers also use the "cultural knowledge, prior experiences, frames of reference, and performance styles of ethnically diverse students to make learning encounters more relevant to and effective for them" (Gay, p. 29).
Content integration. Content integration deals with the extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts, principles, generalizations, and theories in their subject area or discipline. The infusion of ethnic and cultural content into a subject area is logical and not contrived when this dimension is implemented properly.
More opportunities exist for the integration of ethnic and cultural content in some subject areas than in others. There are frequent and ample opportunities for teachers to use ethnic and cultural content to illustrate concepts, themes, and principles in the social studies, the language arts, and in music. Opportunities also exist to integrate multicultural content into math and science. However, they are less ample than they are in social studies and the language arts. Content integration is frequently mistaken by school practitioners as comprising the whole of multicultural education, and is thus viewed as irrelevant to instruction in disciplines such as math and science.
Equity Pedagogy

Curriculum Reform

Multicultural Competence

Social Justice

Integration not resegregation

Positive teacher expectations

Positive interracial contact

Culturally Competent Teaching

Multicultural Teaching

An empowering school culture. This dimension involves restructuring the culture and organization of the school so that students from diverse racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and language groups experience equality. Members of the school staff examine and change the culture and social structure of the school. Grouping and labeling practices, sports participation, gaps in achievement among groups, different rates of enrollment in gifted and special education programs among groups, and the interaction of the staff and students across ethnic and racial lines are important variables that are examined and reformed.
An empowering school structure requires the creation of qualitatively different relationships among various groups within schools. Relationships are based on mutual and reciprocal respect for cultural differences that are reflected in school-wide goals, norms, and cultural practices. An empowering school structure facilitates the practice of multicultural education by providing teachers with opportunities for collective planning and instruction, and by creating democratic structures that give teachers, parents, and school staff shared responsibility for school governance.
Understand multiple historical perspectives

Develop cultural competence

Develop Intercultural Competence

Combat Racism, Sexism, Prejudice and Discrimination

Raise awareness of the planet and global dynamics

Develop Social Action Skills
Accept and Appreciate Cultural Diversity

Respect Human Dignity and Universal Human Rights

Responsible to the World Community

Respect for the Earth

The knowledge construction process. The knowledge construction process describes teaching activities that help students to understand, investigate, and determine how the implicit cultural assumptions, frames of references, perspectives, and biases of researchers and textbook writers influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed.
Multicultural teaching involves not only infusing ethnic content into the school curriculum, but changing the structure and organization of school knowledge. It also includes changing the ways in which teachers and students view and interact with knowledge, helping them to become knowledge producers, not merely the consumers of knowledge produced by others.
The knowledge construction process helps teachers and students to understand why the cultural identities and social positions of researchers need to be taken into account when assessing the validity of knowledge claims. Multicultural theories assert that the values, personal histories, attitudes, and beliefs of researchers cannot be separated from the knowledge they create. They consequently reject positivist claims of disinterested and distancing knowledge production. They also reject the possibility of creating knowledge that is not influenced by the cultural assumptions and social position of the knowledge producer.
In multicultural teaching and learning, paradigms, themes, and concepts that exclude or distort the life experiences, histories, and contributions of marginalized groups are challenged. Multicultural pedagogy seeks to reconceptualize and expand the Western canon, to make it more representative and inclusive of the nation's diversity, and to reshape the frames of references, perspectives, and concepts that make up school knowledge.
Multicultural Education Is:
Cultural Autobiography
How do we THINK about education?
"I do not aim to offer strategies that work. Rather, I hope to offer conceptual and cultural resources for educators and researchers to use as we rethink our practices, constantly look for new insights, and engage differently in anti-oppressive education" (Kumashiro, 2002)
Question Set One
What is the difference between Equity and Equality, and what place does equity have in Education?
What is multicultural competence and how might teachers work to achieve it?

What is teaching for social justice and why should educators concern themselves with it?
Question Set Two
Why is multicultural education an important concept to consider as an educator?

What is it about our society that requires a multicultural lens?
Question Set Three
Why do we consider integration better than re-segregation? What is the belief?
What is the power of positive teacher expectations, and what does it actually mean for you as an educator?
Read the following quote, and consider if you had a teacher who fit this description:
A Wicked Problem?
Unique and situational specific
ill structured and idiosyncratic
Smallest issue will defy prefabricated strategies and solutions
All happens in praxis
Goals of Multicultural Teaching
Working towards cultural competence
What are your family values, norms, beliefs, expectations, and actions?
What are your peers values, norms, beliefs, expectations and actions?
What are the values, norms, beliefs and expectations of the school?
How did your multiple worlds sync up while you were in school?

Was there any difference and how drastic or slight?

Did you have teachers who were aware of your multiple worlds?

What experiences can you remember that represent these teachers in your mind?

Perhaps you had teachers who were not aware , or unconcerned for your multiple worlds - what were those experiences like?
Students' Multiple Worlds
Not a deficit model - It's not what they don't get, it's what they have to offer
Working in their world to reach other worlds

Psychosocial -

Sociocultural -

Socioeconomic -

Linguistic -

Gender -

Structural -
Anxiety, depression and fear
Values held perceived as lesser
Career, job, income and education
Language and perception of language
Expectations, treatment and content
Worlds do not match, with no service or support
Where might you have experienced your own borders or boundaries?
Teachers work toward eliminating the borders
Skills and strategies to work comfortably and successfully in social settings with different people
Types of Students
Do any of these describe your experience with education?
Type I - Congruent Worlds/Smooth Transitions

Type II - Different Worlds/Border Crossings Managed
Conform, Adapt, Blend

Type III - Different Worlds/Border Crossing Difficult
Students on the brink

Type IV - Different Worlds/Border Crossing Impenetrable
Crossing is too painful
Savage Inequalities
Who is responsible for schools?

Who controls school administrations?

Whose interests are being served by education?

Who is oppressed?

Who lacks a voice?
Thought Exercise
What was your school like?
What is your school "norm?"
Facilities Lunch Demographics
Discipline Classes Materials
Sports Teachers Clubs

How does this impact your teaching?
What can you do as a teacher to provide a voice and defend against oppression?
Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work
Your educational experience is influenced by your social class
Social class is a complex series of relationships - defined by our material ties to the world
What were the qualities, pedagogy and learning of each school studied?
Working Class
Middle Class
Affluent Professional
Elite Executive
How has social class mattered in your Education?
What is the Hidden Curriculum?
Thought Exercise
What do you consider to be your "Social Class?"
What criteria do you use to reach your identification?
Work through the following prompts to develop an understanding of where you are at socio-economically so you can better understand yourself and your students in the classroom
Class Privilege
What kind of job(s) did your parent(s) or guardians have?

How steady was the work? How safe? How many hours did they work? Were there periods of involuntary unemployment? Was one income adequate for the family? Were two?

What kind of status was attached to their work? What kind of benefits? What level of income did they bring home?

Did the children of the family have to contribute financially to help make ends meet? What could your family not afford on that income?

Did your family go on vacations? Where did they go? Did you go to summer camps or special programs? Did your family travel out-of-state? Out of the country?
What were activities and behaviors that were signs of different classes in your neighborhood? How were class differences in dress, language, values, background, appearance or behavior manifested in your school? How did they play out in interactions between adults? Between young people?

Were you ever embarrassed by your class background? Have you ever embarrassed others, or felt the embarrassment of others because of their class background?
Were your parent(s) or guardian(s) able to vote for candidates that represented their class interests? Did the local, state, and federal policies that were passed generally support the prosperity and security of your family?

Were tax policies, transportation, environmental, educational, and health care policies generally to the advantage or to the disadvantage of your family?
Did/do you have enough food to eat? Were there times when you or other family members were hungry?

Where did your family shop? What was the basic diet? Did you eat out a lot? At what kind of places? Who cooked your meals? Was there an abundance of foods? Lots of fancy foods?

How did other people in the urban/suburban/rural area you lived in eat?
Did your family have any accumulated wealth like stocks and bonds, property, a business, a farm? If so, what opportunities did it provide for the family? How much wealth did the family possess? Did that increase or decrease over your lifetime? Was your family in debt, or constantly worried about paying the bills?

Were there educational, employment, or housing opportunities that were not available because your family did not have enough money to take advantage of them?
How was your class represented on TV and in the movies?

How were other classes? Who were “representative” families or characters from different classes in the media?
Did your family have health care coverage? Was it adequate? Was your family able to have regular medical, dental, and eye checkups?
Could your family afford glasses or orthodontic work/braces when needed? Did your family postpone needed medical treatment because they could not afford it?

Was your family ever disrespected or treated less well, or treated specially or given special attention because of their class, race, gender, or immigrant status?
How did you and your family spend your leisure time? Did your parent(s) or guardian(s) have leisure time? How was their leisure time affected by their gender? Could they afford to buy you toys and games? What kinds of electronic items did you have in your house? What kind did you want but could not afford?

Was there money to go out to eat, go to the movies, or to pay for other activities? Did your family go to fancy restaurants or eat out frequently? Did they go to expensive entertainment such as concerts or plays? Did you family go on outings or trips? Did they travel by public transportation, car, or plane? Did they stay overnight? Where did they stay? Did you have to work when going to school?

Did you get paid for doing chores or jobs for your parents? Did you receive an allowance? How much was it? What did you spend it on? Were you given money on birthdays or other special occasions?
What kind of housing did you live in? Did you have a stable home? Were you homeless? Who lived with you-- other relatives/another family? Did you rent your home?

Did you ever have to move because your family could not pay the rent? Did your family own their own home? Did you have your own bedroom?

Did your family have a vacation place or second house? Did you feel comfortable in your house, proud of it, embarrassed by it? How much of the family’s budget went towards housing expenses?

Where in your area did people live with fancier homes? Where with poorer homes? Was your neighborhood racially diverse or was it segregated? How did that affect the status of the neighborhood?
What kind of education or educational opportunities did your parent(s) or other guardians have? How did gender or race affect that? What kinds of jobs did their education (or lack of education) make available to them or exclude them from?

How did their race and gender affect that? Were they unable to pursue further education because of financial circumstances?
Where did you go to school? What was the class make-up of the school? Of the surrounding schools?

How were students tracked by class, race, and/or gender within your school? Where were you tracked? What were the expectations of those around you about what you would do in your life?

What were the most visible career paths on those in your immediate family/extended family/neighborhood? Was any higher education paid for by your parents or grandparents? Did you have to work to get through high school and/or college? How much education were you able to get? Did you rely on scholarships? Did you take out student loans to get through school?
Where did your family shop for food, clothes, and household goods? Did they buy “on-time” or on lay-away? Did they postpone purchases until they could afford them? Did they have to pay attention to budgeting?

How was your family treated in stores based on how their class position was perceived? How did their race, gender, and/or immigrant status affect how they were treated? Were they charged more because of their race, gender, or immigrant status?

Were there places they were not welcomed or mistreated? Were there places they could not afford?
How did the police treat members of your family based on your family’s economic standing?
How was that influenced by race, gender, or immigrant status? Did your family look on the police as protecting them? As working in their interests in the community?

How was the treatment of your family by other professionals affected by your family’s class standing? How did race, gender, or immigrant status affect their treatment?
How has social class provided you with privilege?
What are the values of your particular class?
What can you do as a teacher to be more aware and understand?
APA Statistics
Cultural Politics and the Text
What can we consider as a "text" to investigate in schools?
Questions for Apple’s “Text and Politics”

What is the “truth” of a textbook?
How were you instructed in the classroom to use the textbook? How will you use the textbook in your own classroom?
Should we have standardized textbooks across the United States? Across individual states? Should we use textbooks at all?
Is the Textbook authoritative? Is it accurate? Is it necessary?
How do you read a textbook? How will you have students read a textbook, or will you use one?
What culture or cultures are perpetuated as American?

Who is represented in the American Narrative?
The American Story . . .
“Cultural differences should not separate us from each
other, but rather cultural diversity brings a collective
strength that can benefit all of humanity.”

“Intercultural dialogue is the best guarantee of a more
peaceful, just and sustainable world.”
-- Robert L. Allen
Each video below is a short clip discussing "Culturally Competent Teaching"
Lets take time to watch, and after each we can consider:

1. One idea that helped clarify a view of Cultural Competence
2. How you may apply this information to your career?
3. Develop a list of characteristics of Multicultural Teachers
In what ways will you adapt your self and pedagogy during your career to engage people from the different cultural contexts?
Introduction to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy
Culture is Personal and Ever-Changing
Variations Within Group Cultures
Enhancing Teachers' Cross-cultural Communication skills
Expanding Our Understandings of Difference
Alternatives to Tracking
Approaching the Intersection of Education and Self Multiculturally
Where in the framework do your selected articles fit and why?
What connections can you make between reading, class and lab?
Cultural Competence
What is culturally competent teaching?
Which context do schools serve best as they currently exist?
Which context are you?
How does socioeconomic status influence education?
What social class do you identify yourself within?
How has your social class afforded or constrained your educational opportunities?
Whose Knowledge is of Most Worth?
What are the politics involved in education?
Social Class and Politics
Were you represented by the knowledge you learned in school?
Did school and everything it was look and act and exist like you?
What have been your experiences?
Teel's 8 Characteristics of Racial Cultural Competence
Very comfortable with students
Engages students all the time
Positive personal connection with each student
High Expectations for each with follow through
Accept total responsibility for any students lack of success
Strong positive relationship with all parents
Constantly reflect on practice with others
Develop and use culturally relevant lessons
How do you define culturally competent teaching?
1. Students must experience academic success across all content and skills. Self esteem accompanies genuine academic success

2. Students must develop/maintain their own cultural competence, the home culture being a vehicle for learning.

3. Students develop a critical consciousness with which they can challenge social injustice.
Ladson-Billings Three Principals
Gay's Six Characteristics
Multidimensionally Empowering
Guidelines for Understanding Cultural Differences

Verbal Communication
Discussion modes

Non Verbal Communication
Kinesics - Body Language
Proxemics - Personal Space
Haptics - Touch
Signs and Symbols

Orientation Modes
Body Positions
Spatial Architectural Patterns
Attention Modes
Time Modes

Social Values
Ideal Behaviors
Ideal Goals

Intellectual Modes
Preferred Ways of Learning
Knowledge Most Valued
Skills Emphasized
Self Assessment
Race - "man's most dangerous myth."
The false idea that we can divide humans into scientific categories based on skin color, eye shape or hair texture; and these traits influence intelligence, attitude and behavior
"It is a grave mistake for the vast majority of Whites to assume that they can remain free and enjoy democracy while they are denying it to Blacks. The antidemocratic not only wants to ensure that Blacks do not enjoy certain rights, he also wants to ensure that no White is free to question or challenge this denial"
Booker T. Washington, 1911

Some US Census Statistics
Address issues, not just incidents

Mobilize and organize to respond to issues without being prompted by a target group member

Willing to take risks that affect their own place, position and authority in dominant group

Is visible, active, vigilant and public at all times

Recognizes the inherent privilege and power of being a member of the dominant group

Views membership in dominant group as an opportunity to bring about change
Black students accounted for 18 percent of the country’s pre-K enrollment, but made up 48 percent of preschoolers with multiple out-of-school suspensions.

Black students were expelled at three times the rate of white students.

Black girls were suspended at higher rates than all other girls and most boys.

Nearly one in four boys of color, excepting Latino and Asian American students, with disabilities received an out-of-school suspension.

One in five girls of color with disabilities received an out-of-school suspension.

A quarter of the schools with the highest percentage of black and Latino students did not offer Algebra II.

A third of these schools did not offer chemistry.

Less than half of American Indian and Native-Alaskan high school students had access to the full range of math and science courses, which consists of Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II, calculus, biology, chemistry and physics.

Black and Latino students accounted for 40 percent of enrollment at schools with gifted programs, but only represented 26 percent of students in such programs.

Black, Latino and Native American students attended schools with higher concentrations of first-year teachers (3 to 4 percent) than white students (1 percent).

Black students were more than three times as likely to attend schools where fewer than 60 percent of teachers meet all state certification and licensure requirements.

Latino students were twice as likely to attend such schools.
Identity Development
Black Identity Development
1. Pre-encounter - accepting the dominant world view and seeking assimilation into dominant white society.
2. Encounter - Some event causes a break down of ethnic self identity, changing how a person understands the condition of black people in the United States
3.Immersion-Emersion - Living totally within a world of Blackness. Feelings of Rage/Pride that creates a Pseudo Black identity - based on a hatred/negation of whites instead of a pro or affirmative view of a black perspective.
4.Internalization - internalizes ethnic identity, achieving a greater inner security and self satisfaction. The "nice" Black person that holds a healthy sense of identity/pride, and less hostility
5.Internalization and Commitment - To actively engage plans working to bring about social change. Prior rage transforms into conscious anger at oppressive racist institutions.
White Racial Identity Development
1. Pre-Encounter/Pre-Contact - Lack awareness of the self as a racial being, the societal exploitation of people of color and oblivious to racial tensions and issues.
2.Conflct - An event causes new information to be internalized about race relations. Conflict occurs between assumptions held about how the world is. Loyalty to White peers/family vs. A Non Racist attitude. Guilt, Anger, Depression
Two Possible Directions:
3. Retreat into White Culture - avoid any situations that are emotionally/physically threatening. This Pro White mentality is strong, and based in fear and/or anger.
4.Pro-Minority/Antiracism - Resist racism, and identify with minority groups. Could possibly become paternalistic - and over identify. Hold a sense of guilt and anger toward white society
5.Redefinition and integration - Seek to understand, and come to terms with being White in society. Seeking a balanced sense of the racial self - "acknowledge responsibility for maintaining racism while at the same time identifying with a White identity that is non-racist" See good and bad in own and other groups - and working for social justice
William Cross
Moving From Oppression to Liberation
Sabnani, Ponterotto, Borodovsky
Teacher Allies in the Classroom
What is Racism?
What is Prejudice?
What is Discrimination?
What are Stereotypes?
What is Ethnocentrism?
Part of a students life -
Silent Racism
A socially determined category that is related to physical characteristics in a complex way.
Accidental Racist
Institutional Racism
Stereotype Threats
Evolution of Race
Importance of Discussion
Assumptions, Stereotypes and Bias
- The systematic subordination of members of targeted racial groups who have relatively little social power. . . by members of the agent racial group who have relatively more social power. Supported by individuals, institutional practices in society, and dominant cultural values and norms. A universal phenomenon where ethnic diversity is part of the struggle for power.
- Personal beliefs, attitudes and actions that support and perpetuate a sense of superiority and dominance based on race.
- Societal rules, practices and procedures that preference white, and restrict choices, rights, mobility and access of People of Color.
- Dominant cultural values and norms believed superior to those of another.
- Negative feelings, expressed or not, based upon a faulty and inflexible generalization which places a group of people at some disadvantage not merited by their actions. Unfair way of thinking about members of another group.
- Actions taken on the basis of prejudice
- Simplistic images or distorted truths about a person or group based on a prejudgment of habits, traits, abilities or expectations.
I'm OK; You're OK
Pre-Exposure Perception
(Colorblind/Ignore Race)
Something is not OK
Exposure Experience
(Questioning Reality)
I'm OK; I'm not so sure about you
I'm OK, You're OK, We're OK
Open to new ideas, thinking
Ready to work for change
(I'm OK, so do as I say; I'm OK; change is too much trouble; I'm OK; you're invisible)
Moule's Identity Development
Race: Power of an Illusion
History of Racism
White Privilege
Peggy McIntosh
Bill O'Reilly
Tim Wise
Daily Show
Demographic Information
Family/Cultural Values
Educational Suggestions
Questions for Discussion
Points/Quotes from the reading
Overarching Themes/Connections
Demographic Information
Family/Cultural Values
Educational Suggestions
Questions for Discussion
Points/Quotes from the reading
Overarching Themes/Connections
Asian Americans

Ethnic Group –
Communities in larger society distinguished socially by others / itself on bases of racial and cultural characteristics

Race –
Widely accepted myth that we can divide humans by color of skin and other biological traits.

Culture -
Shared knowledge and belief systems, symbols and meanings -
Culture is not determined by skin color

Inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic form.Communications, perceptions, developed knowledge about attitudes toward life. Acquired knowledge that people use to interpret, experience and generate social behavior
Pro - Minority Perspective - Over identify with ethnic minorities and issues
Passive Recipients Perspective - Withdraw; Distance self from ethnic minorities and issues
Little thought is given to multicultural issues, racism or oppression
confronted with minority individuals and issues; realities of racism, mistreatment of "others."
Leads to possible anger and guilt -
Two Directions: Zealot or Defensive
Views become balanced, defensiveness transforms:
students interested, respect and appreciate cultural differences

African American Civil Rights Movement

1. K: What do you know/remember? Names, events, places - understandings?

2. W: What do you want to know more about? What are you unclear about or interested in?

3: L: Take some time to find resources related to the African American Civil Rights movement (perhaps related to your career/educational field)

Using INTERNET - investigate your "W" items.
What sites did you find and use? Where did your research take you? What information did you identify?

Arab Americans
Native Americans
Demographic Information
Family/Cultural Values
Educational Suggestions
Questions for Discussion
Points/Quotes from the reading
Overarching Themes/Connections
Demographic Information
Family/Cultural Values
Educational Suggestions
Questions for Discussion
Points/Quotes from the reading
Overarching Themes/Connections
What enduring understandings do we derive from the Civil Rights Movements?

Explain how the Civil Rights Movements are relevant to Multicultural Education.

The March for Civil Rights

1. K: What do you know remember about:

African American Civil Rights Movement?
Feminist Movement?
Chicano Movement?
Asian American "Yellow Power" Movement?
Gay Rights Movement?
American Indian Movement?

2. W: What movement do you want to know more about and why?
What concepts, facts, information or knowledge would be valuable to you?
What questions do you have about the movement or movements?
What are you curious about?

3. L: Investigate! Take some time to find resources and information related to one of these movements -

Using Internet - Investigate your "W" items -
What concepts, people, groups ideas and laws did you uncover? Timelines?

What sites did you find and use? Where did your research take you? What information did you identify?

Post your findings and resources on the discussion board
What is your 'Religious Identity?'

How does religion influence your daily life?

Has it always?

What are the rites/rituals/practices of your religion?

Does 'Religious Identity' matter?

Why is this your religion, how did you come to adhere to it?

How might your religious identity interact with your chosen professional identity?

What interaction have you experienced with members of other religions?

What questions do you have about religion in America?

"Language is a dialect with an army and a navy"
1. As multicultural teacher’s, what is the value of language diversity and Bilingual Education in the classroom? What are your concerns? How should we use non-English languages in American Public Education?

2. You have ELL students in your classroom. As a multicultural educator, what will you do in order to be successful as their teacher?

Has language ever been a barrier to your success - academically or socially?
How might language be a barrier in your classroom?
What concerns do you have?
What is the value of a bilingual educational experience?
Does your communication style change when you interact with:
What variations are you aware of - how did you learn to switch?
What was the linguistic diversity of your school district?
How did your district address the English Language Learning student? For those learning English as a second language- what support was available?
Federal Law and Court Decisions
Bilingual Education Act - 1968
Part of ESEA - Title VII
"the special educational needs of the large numbers of children of limited English-speaking ability in the United States"
Federal Government provides money for innovative bilingual programs implementation and development
Lau v. Nichols (1974)
Supreme Court Decision
Schools must provide sufficient instructional programs and services to teach English to limited English speaking students insuring they understand the materials and instruction they are recieving
Discriminatory to separate into permanent ability groups and tracks based on language
Castaneda v. Pickard (1981)
Established a guideline for English Language Learning Programs
Theory: program used is based on a legitimate educational theory and strategy
Practice: Implementing a program of instruction with resources and personnel needed to make theory a reality.
Results: You cannot continue to use a program that is failing to produce positive results
Plyer v. Doe (1982)
Supreme Court
States cannot deny a free public education to immigrant children because of immigrant status: Documented or Undocumented
No Child Left Behind
Replaced BEA
Removed all references to bilingual education
No support for native language learning
English accountability only - all students tested yearly in English
California Prop. 227 (1998)

Outlaws bilingual Education

Students in regular classes only - no instructional support (Illegal)
English as a Second Language
No instruction in primary language
Taught through pullout programs or academic content during the day
Instruction in primary language and English (K-6)
Goal: Academic proficiency in both
Some instruction in primary language
Transition as fast as possible
Goal: English within 1-3 years
Language majority and minority students instructed together in school with goal of both groups achieving bilingualism and bi-literacy
Exit Ticket

Gender is a cultural construct with specific political implications and schooling plays a role in the process
Male Benefits Checklist
1. My odds of being hired for a job, when competing against female applicants, are probably skewed in my favor. The more prestigious the job, the larger the odds are skewed.

2. If I fail in my job or career, I can feel sure this won’t be seen as a black mark against my entire sex’s capabilities.

3. I am far less likely to face sexual harassment at work than my female co-workers are.

4. If I do the same task as a woman, and if the measurement is at all subjective, chances are people will think I did a better job.

5. If I choose not to have children, my masculinity will not be called into question.

6. If I have children and a career, no one will think I’m selfish for not staying at home.

7. My elected representatives are mostly people of my own sex. The more prestigious and powerful the elected position, the more this is true.

8. When I ask to see “the person in charge,” odds are I will face a person of my own sex. The higher-up in the organization the person is, the surer I can be.

9. As a child, chances are I was encouraged to be more active and outgoing than my sisters.

10. As a child, chances are I got more teacher attention than girls who raised their hands just as often.

11. If I’m careless with my financial affairs it won’t be attributed to my sex.

12. If I’m careless with my driving it won’t be attributed to my sex.

13. Even if I sleep with a lot of women, there is no chance that I will be seriously labeled a “slut,” nor is there any male counterpart to “slut-bashing.”

14. I do not have to worry about the message my wardrobe sends about my sexual availability or my gender conformity.

15. My clothing is typically less expensive and better-constructed than women’s clothing for the same social status. While I have fewer options, my clothes will probably fit better than a woman’s without tailoring.

16. The grooming regimen expected of me is relatively cheap and consumes little time.

17. I can be loud with no fear of being called a shrew. I can be aggressive with no fear of being called a bitch.

18. I can be confident that the ordinary language of day-to-day existence will always include my sex. “All men are created equal,” mailman, chairman, freshman, etc.

19. My ability to make important decisions and my capability in general will never be questioned depending on what time of the month it is.

20. I will never be expected to change my name upon marriage or questioned if I don’t change my name.

21. The decision to hire me will never be based on assumptions about whether or not I might choose to have a family sometime soon.

22. If I have a wife or live-in girlfriend, chances are we’ll divide up household chores so that she does most of the labor, and in particular the most repetitive and unrewarding tasks.

23. If I have children with a wife or girlfriend, chances are she’ll do most of the child rearing, and in particular the most dirty, repetitive and unrewarding parts of childrearing.

24. If I have children with a wife or girlfriend, and it turns out that one of us needs to make career sacrifices to raise the kids, chances are we’ll both assume the career sacrificed should be hers.

25. Magazines, billboards, television, movies, pornography, and virtually all of media are filled with images of scantily-clad women intended to appeal to me sexually. Such images of men exist, but are rarer.

26. In general, I am under much less pressure to be thin than my female counterparts are. If I am fat, I probably suffer fewer social and economic
consequences for being fat than fat women do.

27. On average, I am not interrupted by women as often as women are interrupted by men.

28. I have the privilege of being unaware of my male privilege.

Possible Cultural Autobiography Questions
2. Checking Understanding: Cultural Autobiography Questions
3. Writing Prompts
4. Partner Share
5. Group Share
Sexual Orientation
How will you be an ally in the classroom?
I. Reflecting on your own schooling experience, how did your school engage in special education?

2. What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages to labeling and classifying exceptional students?

3.What is an IEP? An LRE? Zero Rejection? FAPE? A CCC?

4. What are you responsible for as a teacher in the classroom with exceptional students?

5. What is the most critical challenge currently facing the education of exceptional students, in school overall and your specific content?

What do you think about the labels Special Education and Gifted and Talented? Discuss thee advantages and disadvantages to the classification of exceptional students.

What is the most critical challenge currently facing the education of exceptional students, in school overall and your specific content?

What are you responsible for as a teacher in the classroom with exceptional students?

Larger Focus Questions:
The six principles of IDEA:

• Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE), Zero Rejection

• Appropriate educational evaluation

• Individualized Education Program (IEP)

• Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

• Procedural safeguards (sometimes referred to as the Notice of Parent Rights or NOPS)

• Parent(s) participation in decision.

Case Conference Committee (CCC) –
The case conference committee (CCC) is the group of people including the parent(s) and school personnel, who share the responsibility of making educational decisions for a student with a suspected or identified disability. In the CCC meeting the parent(s) is an equal partner with the representative of the school. In the case where the student with a disability has attained adult legal status, the student will act on his/her own behalf thus assuming all of the functions and rights given to the parent(s).

Individualized Education Program (IEP) – The written plan that describes how the student will participate in the general education curriculum (if appropriate) and identifies the special education and related services that the school will provide to the student. Once the IEP is developed, the CCC must review the IEP at least one time each year and make changes to the IEP as needed.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) – Placement must allow the student to be educated with non-disabled students to the greatest extent appropriate for the student regardless of the student’s disability. For some students, this means that they will be educated in the general education classroom, but for others it will mean that they are with non-disabled students only for certain periods of time such as lunch, recess, or a particular class.
A student may be found eligible for special education and related services in one or

more of the thirteen (13) disability categories:

• Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

• Blind or Low Vision (BLV)

• Cognitive Disability (CD)

• Deaf or Hard of Hearing (DHH)

• Deaf-Blind (DB)

• Developmental Delay (DD) (early childhood only)

• Emotional Disability (ED)

• Language or Speech Impairment (LSI)

• Multiple Disabilities (MD)

• Other Health Impairment (OHI)

• Orthopedic Impairment (OI)

• Specific Learning Disability (SLD)

• Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

Modification and Accommodation
"General education teachers will not generally know all the adaptive techniques available to children with disabilities, but they should have some understanding about important principles of instruction as well as information about where to find these special adaptations and strategies when they need them." (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005)
Pick up/Read
: Special Education and Minorities
What lessons for the Multicultural Educator can be found in this article?
What parts of the Multicultural Framework are addressed in this article?
Full transcript