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BERLIN WALL

History 12 SOP
by

Syd Stephen

on 1 March 2013

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Transcript of BERLIN WALL

THE BERLIN WALL NATALIE, KATIE, SYDNEY YALTA CONFERENCE FEB 4-11 1945 POTSDAM CONFERENCE JULY-AUG 1945 -A meeting between the United States, United Kingdom and Soviet Union (Roosevelt, Churchill,Stalin)
-Post-war discussion for the reorganization and re-establishment of Europe

German unconditional surrender
"De-nazification" of Germany
Germany and Berlin would be divided into 4 zones of occupation (American, British,Soviet,French) Key points: -Big 3 were now represented by Truman, Churchill and Stalin
-Discussion regarding military occupation and reconstruction of Germany

Punishment of Nazi Germany reparations
confronting soviet communist political interference in Poland and Eastern Europe
Japanese surrender atomic bomb, pressure from East
Division of Berlin WEST vs EAST Key points: CHARLES DE GAULLE WINSTON CHURCHILL JOSEPH STALIN AMERICA SOVIET UNION Cold war
escalates tension between the two super powers
Marshall Plan is established in 1947
provides aid and encourages the rebuilding of Europe
ultimately would benefit WEST Berlin FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT ESCAPE ATTEMPTS -around 3 million people escaped to west Berlin, but it’s uncertain how many did for sure
- most attempts occurred as the wall was still being built:
people tried to run across without being shot or killed by mines
dug under in huge tunnels
drove right through the wall
traveled through sewer
shot air balloons
jumping from windows of apartments
East German border guard Conrad Schumann leaps into the French Sector of West Berlin over barbed wire on August 15, 1961. LEADING TO THE FALL -750th anniversary of Berlin: June 12/ 1987 “Mr. Gorbachev tear down this wall” CAUSES HUNGRY OPENS ITS BORDERS 1989 change from the iron curtain policy
travel allowed through communist countries
escape through Hungry into Austria then to West Berlin
Soviet mostly ignore this process PROTESTS BREAK OUT IN E.GERMANY 1989 small peaceful groups
called Neues Forum (new forum)
illegal Monday demonstrations
Nov.4/1989 Alexander Demonstration:
- rally for change
-public square
- largest demonstration in East German history
-well organized protest NEW POLICIES Honecker (SED) orders guards to stop shooting at those trying to breach the wall
Gorbachev has two new policies: glasnost and perestroika.
Stop corruption in the communist party
Transparency in the government BREAKING THROUGH Krenz (SED) decides to allow travel between borders
To be put in affect next day
Information is given to Gunter Schabowski to inform the press
uninformed of details when asked he says :


-E.Berliners flood to border crossings
-Guards not sure what to do as they now have mixed orders
-Eventually let them pass with little security checking
Huge Celebration DAYS TO COME..... NOVEMBER 9TH 1989 20TH ANNIVERSARY OF FALL NOVEMBER 9TH 2009 Celebration around Brandenburg gate
Parts of wall still remain in Berlin and around the world CONSTRUCTION OF THE WALL
The GDR’s head of state Walter Ulbricht declared:

August 13, 1961, temporary barriers were set up to separate the Soviet sector from West Berlin
Barbed wire was replaced with a wall of concrete slabs and hollow blocks
The wall was built by East Berlin construction workers
Houses that landed between the walls became apart of the border, the GDR government had access to the homes
The wall separated streets, communities, neighborhoods and even public transportation
In later years the barriers were expanded, perfected and reinforced "no one had any intention of building a wall" BERLIN BLOCKADE An airlift operation that supplied food and fuel to the citizens of West Berlin created by Western Allies
The Soviet Union blocked off railways, roads, and canal access to Berlin
The Soviet Union thought this would pressure the Western powers to allow Soviet control over the city (ex. food/fuel supply)
The operation occurred when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
Aircrews from the United States, Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa flew over 200 000 planes full of supplies to Berlin
The efforts of supporting Berlin was successful and the Soviet Union was proven wrong blockades lifted WEST EAST CHECKPOINT
CHARLIE Checkpoint Charlie is the most famous crossing point between East and West Berlin during the Cold War
After the wall was built John F Kennedy ordered the U.S forces to create 3 checkpoints along the wall.
These checkpoints were where diplomatic corps and allied forces could enter West Berlin.
Checkpoint Charlie was the only place where foreigners visiting Berlin could cross from the West to the East.
Checkpoint Charlie was where conflicting forces met, (ex East and West, America and the Soviet Union)
Checkpoint Charlie was removed June 1990, removing the checkpoint was not difficult as the Americans never built a permanent structure on the site Unofficial crossings made as people came to knock parts down Mauresphecte : wall wood peckers
German military try and fix wall, but eventually gives up
New border crossings opened
June.13/ 1990: Official take down of wall by East German military

Two plus four process: 1990
-Two German states and four occupied regions reunite
-At German Democratic Republic
Oct. 3/1990: German unity day
Use Deutsche Mark ( west Germany currency) "As far as I know that goes info effect now, immediately" CREATION OF NATO 1949 Military alliance between Western Europe to prevent aggression
Strengthened the west's defense against the "communist threat" leads to WHY DID THE WALL GO UP? Communism was failing in EAST Germany
Stalin needed to stop East Germans from escaping his sphere of influence; although he claimed he only built the wall to keep democracy out The exchange rate for WEST/EAST Germany DM was 4:1 and many skilled workers were leaving East Germany to find work WEST Germany was unhappy about the mass number of immigrants showing up
created economic strain and increased EAST/WEST tension to point where war seemed inevitable THE BIG PICTURE? "a physical and symbolic division between communism and democracy" June 24th 1948-May 12 1949 Temporary memorial for those who died trying to reach West Berlin * Stalin dies (1953) *Truman is replaced by JFK (1953) no man's land *TRUMAN REPLACES ROOSEVELT (1945) * *benefited from Marshall Plan sYMBOL PEACFUL ENDINGS COMMUNISM


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DEMOCRACY
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