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Grains!

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by

Bridget Skelly

on 30 November 2012

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Transcript of Grains!

Objectives:
compare whole grains to refined grains
list a variety of cereal products
evaluate the nutritional value of grains
describe how to cook grain products Cereals are starchy grains that are suitable to use as food. (Not just breakfast cereal! There are many types of cereals!) Types of Cereals Corn, wheat, rice, oats, barley and rye are the cereals most often used as food. These products are used to make foods such as flour, bread, pasta, rice and breakfast foods. STRUCTURE OF GRAINS! First let's see what a GRAIN looks like :) A KERNEL is a whole seed of a cereal and has three parts:
bran
endosperm
germ. Which is better... whole grains or refined grains? (whole wheat bread or white bread?) Whole grains are better! Buuuut do you know WHY?! WHOLE grains contain the bran, endosperm AND germ!! Refined grains have the bran and germ removed :( But why does that make WHOLE grains healthier?! LET'S TAKE A LOOK!!! WHOLE REFINED The bran is the outer protective covering of the kernel. It is a good source of FIBER and VITAMINS Refined grains don't have the FIBER and VITAMINS that are in the bran :( The germ is the reproductive part of the plant and is rich in VITAMINS, MINERALS, PROTEIN and FAT. Refined grains don't have the VITAMINS, MINERALS, PROTEIN and FAT from the germ :( The endosperm contains STARCH and PROTEIN and is the largest part of the kernel Refined grains DO have the STARCH and PROTEIN from the endosperm SUMMARY: whole grains are healthier because they contain fiber, vitamins, minerals, and more protein! Here is a short video to summarize the difference between whole and refined grains! If whole grains are better, why do we have refined grains??? Refined grains have a smoother texture, longer shelf life, different taste and cook faster! Ms. Skelly! I want to eat whole grains!! How will I know which foods have whole grains and which have refined grains?!?!?! Great question! You just look on the label for the word "whole" or "refined"!!! Let's look at some examples! Which of these would be whole and which would be refined??? CAREFUL scholars! Not all WHEAT breads are whole grain!! Look for the words "100% WHOLE WHEAT" if you want whole grains!! If you're unsure, check the ingredient list for the words "whole wheat flour" instead of "enriched flour"!! Here's an example! Refined grains Whole grains MORAL OF THE STORY:
Eat more whole grains!!!
OATMEAL!
CEREALS MADE WITH WHOLE GRAIN
WHOLE GRAIN BREAD
WHOLE GRAIN FLOUR
WHOLE GRAIN PASTA
WHOLE GRAIN TORTILLAS
WHOLE GRAIN EVERYTHING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! FLOUR! Any grain can be made into flour, but most people use WHEAT flour because the gluten (provides structure) is superior! All-purpose Bleached/Unbleached Cake Instant/
Quick mixing Self-rising Whole wheat Other All purpose flour is used most commonly and is made from made from wheat. All purpose flour is REFINED All purpose flour may be bleached or unbleached. Bleached flour is whiter, but there is no nutritional difference! Cake flour is made from soft wheat and is soft and satiny. It's used for making cakes or baked products with delicate textures. Instant or quick mixing flour is all purpose flour that has been treated to blend easily with liquids and is used to make gravies and mixes. Self-rising flour is all-purpose flour that has leavening agents (baking powder or baking soda) and salt added to it!! WHO KNOWS WHAT WHOLE WHEAT FLOUR IS??? Whole wheat flour is made using the WHOLE wheat kernel so it contains the BRAN, GERM and ENDOSPERM!!!! Who remembers what the bran and germ contain that make whole grains healthier??!! Other types of flour include potato flour, which is made from cooked potatoes, buckwheat flour, rye flour, soy flour and rice flour. RICE! Rice is the white, starchy ENDOSPERM of the rice kernel Brown Rice contains the ENDOSPERM, BRAN and GERM....



Which is healthier? White rice or brown rice? WHY??? PASTA Pasta is a nutritious, shaped dough that may or may not be dried. Pasta is made from durum wheat, which is specially grown for pasta making because it gives pasta its flavor and firm shape! Nutritional Value of Grains! What nutrients do grains provide??? Grains provide carbohydrates, protein (ENERGY), vitamins and minerals So how many servings of grains should I eat each day?!??! The USDA recommends that you eat 6 to 11 servings from the grains group each day. Remember that one serving is about one slice of bread or 1/2 cup of cereal, rice or pasta... What's a serving of grains?! so 6-11 servings isn't that much because in many meals you're consuming multiple "servings" in one meal! Remember that whole grains provide more nutrients!!! It is recommended that HALF the grains you eat are WHOLE! Refined grains are sometimes ENRICHED, which means that some nutrients (mostly vitamins and minerals) are added back to the product after processing! Most cereal products are NATURALLY low in fat, sodium and sugar but many products have these ingredients added to them during processing so always CHECK THE LABEL! :) Cooking Grains!! Cereal grains contain starch, which is a complex carbohydrate. Flour, tapioca and cornstarch are examples of starch. Cornstarch Tapioca Starch is completely insoluble (unable to dissolve) in cold water and therefore needs heat to become soluble. This heat can be either dry or moist heat. Dry heat makes starch slightly soluble, causes color and flavor changes and causes the dark crust of baked goods and toast :) Moist heat makes starch soluble and makes them swell. As they swell, the starch mixture will thicken until it reaches MAXIMUM thickness. This is called GELATINIZATION. When cooking grains, you will typically follow the instructions on the package. You will use flour in a variety of recipes and cook it in a variety of ways. Rice, oatmeal and pasta will be cooked using moist heat. OK We're done! Great job everybody!! Love, Ms. Skelly :)
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