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Santander

Andreas Schleicher
by

Andreas Schleicher

on 10 September 2013

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Transcript of Santander

Educating for the 21st century
Living in the world
Ways of thinking
Ways of working
21st century skills
Citizenship
Life and careers
Personal and social responsibility
Creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, decision-making and learning
Communication and collaboration
Tools for working
Information literacy, technology
21st century learning environments
Demanding to every student without overloading
Acutely sensitive to individual differences
Ensure learning is social and collaborative
Make learning central,
encourage engagement and responsibility

PISA shows that, on average now 84% of students are enrolled in schools that have full autonomy in deciding how their budgets are spent, and 57% are in schools that are fully autonomous in formulating their budgets
School leaders develop networks and share their tasks with vice-principals or co-principals, deputy principals, assistant principals, vocational/technical department heads, workshop managers and/or co-coordinators and teachers with special duties. Leadership structures or more informal ad hoc groups based on expertise and current needs are formed to encourage a distribution of responsibilities
Continual assessment with formative feedback
Promote connections across subjects and activities and beyond school
Teachers need to be well-versed in the subjects they teach in order to be adept at using different methods and, if necessary, changing their approaches to optimize learning
Teachers need a rich repertoire of teaching strategies, the ability to combine approaches, and the knowledge of how and when to use certain methods and strategies.
Teachers need to have a deep understanding of how learning happens, and and strengthen student initiative and create skills
Teachers need to be able to work in highly collaborative ways, working with other teachers and professionals or para-professionals within the same organization, or with others in other organizations, in networks of professional communities and in different partnership arrangements, including, for some, mentoring teachers
Teachers need the space to design, lead, manage and plan learning environments in collaboration with others
Teachers need to reflect on their practices in order to learn from their experience

21st century teachers

The strategies used should include direct, whole-group teaching, guided discovery, group work, and the facilitation of self-study and individual discovery.
Understanding learning to improve teaching
Given the uncertainties that accompany change, education stakeholders tend to value the status quo. Systems need to become better at communicating and building support for change.
How to educate for the 21st century
Many Japanese students still struggle with open-ended tasks requiring students to creatively integrate knowledge...
Teachers need to acquire strong technology skills and skills to use technology as effective teaching tools, both to optimize the use of digital resources in their teaching and to use information-management systems to track student learning
Singapore’s Future Schools, encourage innovation and enterprise in teaching practice and flexible learning environments with special emphasis on using technology
In Singapore, teachers are encouraged to be lifelong learners and are part of professional learning communities in which teachers can learn from each other and improve their practice
In Finland, teachers’ time is matched to students’ needs – and this isn’t always class time
Sweden introduced curriculum-embedded assessments that avoid the pitfalls of teacher-designed assessments. The are available 'on demand' and designed, administered and scored locally
The Le@rning Federation is a major digital content project for schools in New Zealand and Australia
Finland’s highly-educated teaching workforce receives a solid base of education theory and is able to apply that to their practice as student teachers, with the support of mentors and team teachers
...but over the last decade Japan has seen the greatest improvement in PISA in this area among all high-performing nations.
Finland has made teaching one of the most sought-after occupations by raising entry standards and giving teachers a high degree of professional responsibility
Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
Thank you!
Find out more about our work at:
www.oecd.org/education
www.pisa.oecd.org
www.data.gov
...and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
School leaders continually challenge staff
...How do we know that?...
...Could we test another way of doing it?...
...What do we know about how people in other schools do it?...
Ontario's leadership strategy
In Shanghai, the Empowered Administration initiative pairs retired school leaders and teachers with struggling schools to provide administrative and pedagogical guidance
Andreas Schleicher
Santander, 8 September 2013
but education doesn't automatically
translate into better outcomes

because skills have an increasing impact on labour market outcomes and social participation


because failure to ensure a good skills match has both short- term consequences (skills shortages) and longer-term effects on economic growth and equality of opportunities
Understanding what skills drive economic and social outcomes
Governments build strong skills systems and effective partnerships with
key stakeholders to find sustainable approaches to who should
pay for what, when and where
Learning the right mix of skills in effective, equitable and efficient ways
Economies and labour-markets fully utilize their skill potential

Success with converting skills into jobs and growth depends on whether...
...Skills change lives...
...and drive economies
Skills have become the currency
of 21st century societies
OECD
Japan
Japan
OECD
PISA 2006 - 2009
Fostering demand-sensitive and relevant learning involving employers
Compared to purely government-designed curricula taught in exclusively school-based systems, learning in the workplace offers important advantages
Fostering lifelong skills-oriented learning instead of qualifications-focused education upfront in life course
The kind of things that are easy to test and teach
are disappearing fastest
``
Source: Autor, Levy Murnane
In conclusion
Successful reforms tend to involve significant investment in staff development, or clustering reforms to build up support for them in related institutions.
Teacher engagement also requires consistent, co-ordinate efforts to persuade those affected of the need for reform and, in particular, to communicate the costs of non-reform. This may be particularly challenging when the opportunity costs of maintaining the status quo are less apparent than the costs of change.
Policy makers need to build consensus on the aims of education reform and actively engage stakeholders, especially teachers, in formulating and implementing policy responses.
Some reforms capitalize on external pressures or crises as part of building a compelling case for change.
All political players and stakeholders need to develop more realistic expectations about the pace and nature of reforms to improve outcomes.
Reforms need to be backed by sustainable financing.
There is some shift away from reform initiatives per se towards building self-adjusting systems with rich feedback at all levels, incentives to react, and tools to strengthen capacities to deliver better outcomes.
Investment is needed in change-management skills
Evidence needs to feed back to institutions along with tools with which they can use the information
Making reforms work
21st century reforms
Teachers need to be active agents, not just in the
implementation of reforms, but also in their design
Reform must be underpinned by solid research and analysis
Dialogue can involve conversations both within
national professional bodies and among local groups of professionals
Conflict between unions and reform has best been avoided not where unions are weak but where they are strong and co-operate with reform
The better a country’s education system performs, the more likely that country is working constructively with its unions and treating its teachers as trusted professional partners
Governments and unions need to develop their research capacities.
There is need for better links between union researchers and their counterparts in ministries and those in independent research institutes and universities.
Socio-economic challenges
Growing knowledge intensity
Globalisation
``
Most countries try hard
Different skills
Innovation
Innovation and knowledge inspired by science (research and evaluation)
Innovation inspired through entrepreneurial development of new products and services
Innovation and knowledge inspired by practitioners (teachers, school heads)
Innovation inspired by users
(students, parents, communities)
OECD countries spend 15 times more on
than on
The UK's Sinnott Fellowship funds the work of outstanding teachers who create innovative links between the school and the community to improve student aspirations and outcomes
New Zealands Best Evidence Synthesis Programme is a government brokerage agency through which effective R&D has leveraged effective classroom practice for diverse learners
Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
Thank you!
Find out more about our work at:
www.oecd.org/education
www.pisa.oecd.org
...and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
health research
education research
In conclusion
SchleicherEDU
Learning a place

Provision

Prescription

Bureaucratic look-upwards

Management

Public vs. private

Delivered wisdom

Uniformity

Curriculum-centred

Culture as obstacle

Standardisation
Learning an activity

Outcomes

Informed profession

Devolved-look outwards

Leadership

Public with private

User-generated wisdom

Embracing diversity

Learner-centred

Culture as capital

Ingenious
PISA Learning Outcomes (15-year-olds)
Then
Now
Clear ambitious goals that are shared across the system and aligned with high stakes gateways and instructional systems
Well established delivery chain through which curricular goals translate into instructional systems, instructional practices and student learning (intended, implemented and achieved)
High level of metacognitive content of instruction
PISA shows that, on average now 84% of students are enrolled in schools that have full autonomy in deciding how their budgets are spent, and 57% are in schools that are fully autonomous in formulating their budgets
Balancing autonomy and accountability
Investing resources where they can make most of a difference
Alignment of resources with key challenges (e.g. attracting the most talented teachers to the most challenging classrooms)

Effective spending choices that prioritise high quality teachers over smaller classes
Attracting, developing and retaining high quality teachers and school leaders to a work organisation in which they can use their potential
As more countries grant greater autonomy to schools in designing curricula and managing resources, the role of the school leader has grown far beyond that of administrator. Developing school leaders requires clearly defining their responsibilities, providing access to appropriate professional development throughout their careers, and acknowledging their pivotal role in improving school and student performance by offering the kinds of work environment that will attract the best candidates.
Supporting, evaluating and developing teacher quality
Vision for results and equity
Goal-setting, assessment and accountability
Strategic
resource management
Leadership
beyond school walls
What school leaders in PISA say about their involvement in school matters
21st Century School Leadership
School leaders continually challenge staff
...How do we know that?...
...Could we test another way of doing it?...
...What do we know about how people in other schools do it?...
Distributed leadership
In most countries teacher evaluation involves school leaders and other senior school staff, form rigour and consequences vary greatly

Purposes tend to be evenly distributed among formative evaluation, performance appraisal, professional development planning and career development
School-based professional development activities involving the entire staff or significant groups of teachers are becoming more common, while teacher-initiated personal development is becoming less so.

Most countries now link professional development to the developmental priorities of the school and co-ordinate in-service training in the school accordingly.

School managers and, in some cases, local school authorities play an important role in planning professional-development activities.
School leaders also played a key role in integrating external and internal accountability systems by supporting their teaching staff in aligning instruction with agreed learning goals and performance standards

To evaluate school performance, two-thirds of OECD countries have regulations that require lower secondary schools to be inspected regularly where leaders are held accountable for their use of public funding and for the structures and processes they establish
PISA shows that, on average now 84% of students are enrolled in schools that have full autonomy in deciding how their budgets are spent, and 57% are in schools that are fully autonomous in formulating their budgets
School leaders develop networks and share their tasks with vice-principals or co-principals, deputy principals, assistant principals, vocational/technical department heads, workshop managers and/or co-coordinators and teachers with special duties. Leadership structures or more informal ad hoc groups based on expertise and current needs are formed to encourage a distribution of responsibilities
Building on commitment, not compliance
Strengthen school leaders’ capacity for adapting the curriculum to local needs
Training for school leaders in teacher monitoring and evaluation
Enhancing role of school leaders in teacher professional development so that it is relevant to the local school context
Encourage school leaders to promote teamwork among teachers
Provide school leaders with discretion to set the school’s strategic direction and develop school plans in line with national curriculum standards but also responsive to local needs

Promoting “data-wise” leadership through support and training opportunities for school leaders

Encourage school leaders to distribute assessment and accountability tasks to people within schools capable of using data to design appropriate improvement strategies
% of principals who report doing this frequently or very frequently
In some Finnish municipalities, school leaders spend one-third of their time as district leaders
They also have significant responsibilities in teacher education
Full transcript