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History of the Definition of Giftedness

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Heather Bartholomew

on 14 August 2016

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Transcript of History of the Definition of Giftedness

Taylor's multiple-talent totem pole concept allows for students to be gifted and talented in a variety of areas. His definition of gifted is much broader than previous definitions and does not rely on students achieving high marks in every selected are to be defined as gifted.
Davis, G. A., Rimm, S. B., Siegle, D. (2011). Education of the gifted and talented. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Mitchell, M. (2010). The last word: An interview with Joseph S. Renzulli- On encouraging talent development. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22(1), 157-166. Retrieved from www.ebscohost.com

Jolly, J. L. and Robins, J. H. (2016). After the Marland Report: Four decades of progress? Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 39(2), 132-150. Retrieved from www.ebscohost.com

National Association of Gifted Children. Definitions of giftedness. Retrieved from http://www.nagc.org/resources-publications/resources/definitions-giftedness

Lewis Terman
History of the Definition of Giftedness
by Heather Bartholomew
Terman "modernized and Americanized" Binet-Simon intelligence tests to create the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. This scale helped define "gifted" as having an IQ in the top 1% (or above 135).
Terman also disproved the myth that gifted students
are weak, emotionally unstable, and unattractive.
Davis, Rimm, and Siegle (2011)
Leta Hollingworth
Launch of Sputnik
Joseph Renzulli
Calvin Taylor
Gardner's Multiple Intelligence
Marland Report
National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC)
References
Defined "gifted" as students who have an IQ of 130-180. She also stressed the vulnerability of gifted students when describing characteristics of gifted students.

Hollingworth identified students using IQ tests, interviews, recommendation from teachers and principals, and a review of social and emotional maturity.
Davis, Rimm, and Siegle (2011)
Davis, Rimm, and Siegle (2011)
Abraham Tannenbaum
In the 1960s, Tannenbaum defined giftedness as the ability to perform or work to enhance society. He used his developed Sea Star Model to determine components of gifted students.

The launching of Sputnik shined a spotlight on American education, specifically on the education of America's best and brightest students.

The 1950 Educational Policies Commission illuminated the neglect of students with superior intelligence, therefore decreasing achievements in the arts and sciences.
Davis, Rimm, and Siegle (2011)
Renzulli argued that "gifted behavior reflects an interaction among three basic clusters of human traits... specific ability, high levels of task commitment (motivation), and high levels of creativity" (Davis et al., 2011)

The combination of these three components is Renzulli's definition of giftedness, although the combination and/or prevalence of each component may vary from student to student (Davis et al., 2011)

Renzulli challenged prior definitions because of this belief that a test does not always determine giftedness (Mitchell, M., 2010).


According to Jolly and Robins (2016), the Marland Report definition of gifted and talented can be aruged as the still-standing federal definition of giftedness.

The Marland Report defines giftedness as those persons identified by qualified professionals as having exceedingly high abilities and are capable of high performance (p. 140).
(Due to formatting issues, I could not indent correctly)
Davis, Rimm, and Siegle (2011)
Gardner criticized intelligence testing, focusing on the importance of a broader compass of skills, not just linguistic and mathematical types. Gardner believed that students do not have to be highly gifted in all intelligences to be considered gifted. This multiple intelligence idea includes: linguistic, mathematical, spatial, musical, kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal.
Davis, Rimm, and Siegle (2011)
The NAGC does not subscribe to any one belief of the definition of giftedness but believes "there are children who demonstrate high performance, or who have the potential to do so, and that we have a responsibility to provide optimal educational experiences to fully develop talents in as many children as possible, for the benefit of the individual and the community".
(National Association of Gifted Children)
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