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PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS- PART 1
Transcript of PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS- PART 1
PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IS THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF MENTAL, EMOTIONAL, AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS.
The core feature of disordered behavior is that the behavior is maladaptive.
In reality almost all mental disorders are partly biological.
Statistical Abnormality -
having extreme scores on
some dimension such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression.
In the United States, the DSM V (Diagnostic Statistical Manual V) serves as a universal authority for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders.
This version was released by the American Psychiatric Association on May 3, 2013.
The main thrust of criticism is that changes in the DSM versions have not kept pace with advances in scientific understanding of psychiatric dysfunction.
"IN REALITY, ALMOST ALL MENTAL DISORDERS ARE PARTLY BIOLOGICAL"
RISK FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
1. BIOLOGICAL/PHYSICAL: Genetic, Poor Prenatal Care, Toxic Chemicals or Drugs, Head Trauma
2. PSYCHOLOGICAL: Stress, Low I.Q. , Lack of Control (Anger...), Learning Disorders
3. FAMILY FACTORS: Criminal or Abusive, Severe Marital Strife, Disordered Family Communication Patterns
4. SOCIAL CONDITIONS: Poverty, Stressful Living Conditions, Homelessness, Overcrowding
PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS- PART 1
BEING SANE IN INSANE PLACES
WHAT IS NORMAL?
Normal can be defined in terms of cultural relativity (the idea that judgements are made relative to the values of one's culture).
Normal can be defined in terms of situational context...2003..the mountain climber fell..arm trapped between 2 boulders..cut off his arm to survive.
RUNNING AMOK WITH CULTURAL MALADIES
Every culture recognizes the existence of psychopathology. Here are some examples of psychopathology:
AMOK: Malaysia- when men in Malaysia believe they have been insulted, they run amok.
SUSTO- Latin America - results if someone is badly frightened by a black magic curse.
GHOST SICKNESS: Native American Tribes - preoccupation with death and the deceased.
KORO- South & East Asia - anxiety over receding or shrinking genitals.
HIKIKOMORI- Japan- extreme form of social withdrawal- refusing to leave parent's home.
A severe mental disorder characterized
by a retreat from reality by hallucinations
and delusions, and by social withdrawal.
ORGANIC MENTAL DISORDER:
A mental or emotional problem
caused by brain diseases, or injuries.
THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
THE BIOLOGICAL APPROACH: this approach attributes psychological disorders to organic, internal causes. This approach primarily focuses on the brain, genetic factors, and neurotransmitter functioning as the sources of abnormality.
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH: this approach emphasizes the contributions of experiences, thought, emotions, and personality characteristics in explaining psychological disorders.
THE SOCIOCULTURAL APPROACH: This approach emphasizes the social contexts in which a person lives, including the individual's culture. Socialcultural factors play an important role in psychological disorders.
BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL: Abnormal behavior can be influenced by biological factors (such as genes, brain chemistry..), psychological factors ( such as childhood experiences, stress), and sociocultural factors (such as poverty, cultural mores or gender).
LEGAL INSANITY & THE INSANITY DEFENSE
LEGAL INSANITY AND THE INSANITY DEFENSE:
Someone accused of a crime may argue that he or she is not guilty by reason of insanity. In practice, this means that the accused, due to a diagnosable psychological disorder, was unable to realize that what he or she did was wrong. This may be distinguished from not guilty by reason of diminished responsibility, which is more likely to apply in other situations, such as cases of intellectual disability, like autism or brain damage.