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CHS 50 2017 week 3 1492
Transcript of CHS 50 2017 week 3 1492
"We see no glory in celebrating Oñate’s fourth centennial and we do not want our faces rubbed in it. If you must speak of his expedition, speak the truth in all its entirety"
(Second Message to Alburquerque Journal)
Week 2/3 Outline
Why 1492? Conquest, Colonialism
and the Invention of Race
The ordering of the Modern/colonial world
The fall of Granada, Al Andalus
Columbus and the doctrine of discovery
The Mexica Triple Alliance
The Fall of Tenochtitlan
Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula
Images of Santiago Matamoros during Iberian Wars
Conquest and Colonialism
Valladolid Debate 1550/51 and the Colonial Imaginary
Painting of Fray Bartolome de las Casas
Image of Juan Gines de Sepulveda
Casta System: the Invention of Race in the Americas
Conquest of the Gran Chichimeca and the Expeditions to the North
The Onate Expedition of 1598
The Acoma Massacre and the Politics of Trauma and Memory
[They all go naked as their mothers bore them. . . . I supposed and still suppose that they come from the mainland to capture them for slaves. They should be good servants and very intelligent, for I have observed that they soon repeat anything that is said to them, and I believe that they would easily be made Christians, for they appeared to me to have no religion.] (Colón 1969:55–56) From Colon travel log on October 12, 1492
Why Begin at October 12, 1492
The Fall of Al-Andalus
The Reconquista of the Peninsula?
The axis of Religion and Power
Between Christianity and Islam
The process of using Religion to conquer and invade
Those with Religion (Catholics) and those without (Muslim)
Conversion of Muslims and Jews
by late 16th century the expulsion of Muslims and Jews
Modern/Colonial World System
By viewing indigenous people as people "without religion" Columbus initiated a shift of centuries of epistemic truths based on religion to a new form of classification based on physical features and blood purity distinctions.
Papal Bulls in 1452 and 1493, "Doctrines of Discovery"
Produced reason for indoctrination, enslavement, and extermination
Shaped Europe and Christianity as the center of the world
View of Land as Empty
The Sword and the Cross
Enslavement of Native Population
Extermination of Native groups who Resisted
The need to accumulate natural resources for a growing empire
The Spanish Conquest of the Americas
The early form of governance required replacing the Mexica form of governance
Regional and local caciques oversaw the indigenous population.
20% Rule: Percentage of Natural Resources that went to the Crown
Property Rights for Indians becomes a central concern for the Spanish
Law of Burgos: 1512 decreed that Indians were like children, orphans that needed protection by the Church
By 1518, Spain and Portugal transport directly kidnapped and enslaved African peoples
Spanish Colonialism in New Spain (Mexico)
Wrote "Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias" and "Historia de las Indias"
Chronicled the indigenous populations of the Americas and the maltreatment by the Spanish
De las Casas fought to end the encomiendas by arguing that Indians had the capacity to learn the Christian doctrine.
The Encomienda system ended in 1523 but appeared years later in different format
Enslavement of Indians became illegal in 1537 (papal bull Sublimis Deus)
His solution to the replacement of Indian labor was enslaved Africans.
Participated in the famous Valladolid Debate with Juan Gines de Sepulveda
Fray Bartolome de las Casas
Images of Santiago Mataindios
Purity of blood became important once offspring from rape, sexual violence and intermarriage occurred
a system of classifying colonial subjects formed
this became one of the origins to the modern racial system
Used as a form of social control and hierarchy
gendered roles and occupation were also mapped within the Caste system
Racial Casta System
Criollo (Spanish born in the Americas)
Mestizo (Spanish father/Indigenous Mother)
Mulatto (Spanish Father/African Mother)
Indio Barbaro (Savage)
African Slave (Negro)
Conquest of the Mexica Empire
Hernan Cortes arrives to Tenochtitlan on November 8, 1519, with close to 500 men
Moctezuma Xocoyotzin allows for Cortes to enter
Cortes makes Moctezuma his prisoner and in a rebellion against Cortes, Moctezuma dies and Cortes flees the city on July 1, 1520 (La Noche Triste)
Returns with Tlaxcalan warriors and seizes the city, August 13, 1521
Last emperor, Guatemotzin, resists but is captured, later killed by Cortes in 1525.
Diego Rivera's Famous 1933 Mural on the Encomiendas
The Valladolid Debate (1550-1551)
Also referred to as the “Noble Savage” debate
Gines de Sepulveda: Judicial scholar, argued in favor of enslaving Indians because they were evil. “savages without souls”
Debated on the perceived barbarism of the Indian
Were not capable of reason
A war against the Indians to "uproot crimes against nature"
Father Bartolome de las Casas, on the other hand, argued that Indians were humans with varying degrees of reason and civility.
The right not to be enslaved
Allow to own property
And movement to live in towns and villages.
Left from the Debate...
The changing demographics of Nueva España and the movement to end the encomienda system brought the introduction of more African kidnapped captives
Africans were viewed as sub-human and not afforded the salvation of Indians
African slaves at the end of the 16th century outnumbered the Indian population throughout Mexico
Intermarriage initiated a new system based on the concern over "pureza de sangre" (purity of blood)
A Spanish caste system: (legal and social)
The Case of Juan de Oñate and Acoma
During December 1598, Juan de Oñate's nephew, Juan de Zaldivar took 31 men to the nearby Pueblo of Acoma looking for supplies
The Acoma are sky people who lived at the base of a mesa. They denied the soldiers entry
Zaldivar disobeyed the Acoma and entered. During the ransacking, one of Zaldivar's soldiers stole 2 turkeys and violated an Acoma woman.
Acoma warriors responded and killed the majority of the soldiers including Zaldivar.
Oñate hears about the battle and fearing a widespread revolt, conducts a trial (without Acoma present)
He rules against the Acoma and declares "war by blood and fire."
The Trial and Punishment
On January 21, 1599 Oñate attacks the Acoma with 70 men and 2 canons
800 Pueblo were killed
No colonists died
500 were taken prisoner and sent to Ohkay Owingeh for trial
They were found guilty
children under 12 were free of guilt but were kidnapped and sent to missions for Christianization
Women over 12 and Men 12-25 were sentenced to 20 years of servitude
2 Hopi allies had their Right hand cut off as a sign to other groups
Men over age 25 were sentenced to 20 yrs servitude and had a foot cut off.
Sentence done over different Pueblos as a sign
The Politics of Trauma and Memory
How do we make sense of the cutting off of the foot and the protests against future Oñate statues?
Is it just a matter of Nuevomexicanos wanting to acknowledge only their "Spanish" ancestry and erase Native peoples?
How do we understand Nuevomexicano identity through the memorialization of Spanish settler colonialists?
What are the silences?
Conquest (military, spiritual, body, linguistic, cultural)
dispossession of land
Accumulation of land
natural resource extraction
Constructing difference (race, gender, sexuality)
Administration of an 'other' through indoctrination (forced)
building of a colonial imaginary in terms of superiority and divine right
Europe as the center of the world
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca route to Mexico City
Cartography of Power
What are the Common Narratives of Christopher Columbus voyage to the 'New World'?
Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand II commission Cristobal Colon's (1451-1506) voyage in search of trade routes to Asia/India
Colon sets sail with Portuguese maps and three ships on Sept. 8, 1492
He lands on what is now the Bahamas on October 12, 1492
Later in the month he arrives to Cuba
He returns to Spain and more expeditions are commissioned after
The Moor, Jew, and Pagan prior to 1492
The "reconquista" of the Iberian Peninsula is an important marker of difference.
The consolidation of christian/catholic kingdoms to expel the last of the "moors" ends in the capture of Granada in January 1492
Conversion and Naturalization to Christianity meant a surveillance society
Muslim, Jew, and Indigenous peoples of the peninsula were dispossessed and viewed as "irrational" beings
Spain's formation is ushered in with the voyage of Cristobal Colon soon after the taking of Granada.
“The real Columbus was a mixture of virtues and vices like the rest of us, not conspicuously good or just, but generally well-intentioned, who grappled creditably with intractable problems.” (“Columbus—Hero or Villian?” History Today 42 May 1992: 9)
The Valley of Mexico
From hunter/gatherers to settlements
Complex social formation/organization
Technological advancement in astronomy, mathematics, irrigation and agriculture
Over 25 million by 1519
The Mexica (1428-1521)
Arrival of Hernan Cortes
Left from Cuba on February 18, 1519
Malintzin Tenepalli (La Malinche)
Encomienda System initiated: land owned by Spanish or Indian elite that was worked by Indians as slaves. A way to disposes Indians of land. Brutal system of slavery
The Church mandated that the land owners be responsible for the conversion of Indian population
Genocide: Disease, Famine, and Warfare decimated Indian population
Due to indigenous genocide, over 200,000 kidnapped West Africans were enslaved and brought to the Americas. (The Transatlantic slave trade begins with the Spanish and Portuguese
Spanish Colonialism: Castas, Entradas, and the Missions
The Valladolid Debate
The Origins of the Casta System
The Conquest of Northern Mexico
Entradas into "New Mexico"
The conquest of California
The Mission system in California
The Effects of the Acoma Massacre
How do we understand the Acoma Massacre of 1599?
The erasure of the massacre often comes as a small black eye in a longer process towards "progress".
The "Colonialism WAS bad" argument, and in this case, it is "Spanish colonialism WAS bad" argument.
The "violence was a part of early frontier life" argument. Often argued that Native groups were warlike already.
The result of these master narratives is ERASURE.
Some of the silences erase countless forms of resistance and rebellion that occurred during the colonial periods and resonate today.
Neglects to look at how violence in the Spanish borderlands shaped social and power relations between natives, the spanish, and castas.
The Spanish Borderlands
Oñate is replaced as governor by 1607
Colonists faced many challenges
ruling by violence made making alliances difficult, especially after Acoma
Most colonists who arrived came to find greater flexibility to the Casta system
The use of Native peoples from the interior of Mexico was widely used to fill soldier ranks
Genizaros became central to Spanish missionization and life
Native raids were common
The Pueblo Revolt 1680
Viewed as the first "American" revolution
Resentment grew due to Violence against the Pueblo and enslavement
Alliances between Pueblo, Dine, and Apache resulted in a revolt
401 colonists were killed
2000 left their homes (menchaca)
Tlaxcalans and Mestizos helped
Pueblo communities expelled the Spanish settlers and soldiers
They regained their autonomy, religious freedom, and no longer faced servitude
Misconception of the Pueblo, due to their social structure, were easy to control
Spiritual leader of the Tewa Pueblo from Ohkay Owingeh
Led the Pueblo forces against the Spanish
the Spanish tried to eliminate all traces of Native belief and spiritual systems, including their spiritual elders
Revered by native groups for expelling the Spanish and rejuvenating Pueblo culture and traditions
Statue of Po'pay in Washington DC, National Statuary Hall by Cliff Fragua
Alliances dissolve amongst Pueblo, Apache, Dine
Ute and Comanche raids put pressure
Diego de Vargas makes alliances with tribes to retake New Mexico
the "Reconquista" begins in 1692
Part of the treaties with Pueblo groups was to end the Encomienda system
Settlements against Ute and Comanche were outlawed
New Mexico becomes an important geopolitical/geographical location
Growth of detribalized Indians (Genizaros) and Mestizos and Intermarriage
The Settlement of Alta California
Coronado’s exhibition led the Spanish to believe that religious conquest was necessary in California
Fear that other European countries would settle in California first: trade routes with Asia
Sebastian Vizcaino’s exploration of Monterrey Bay in 1603
Jose de Galvez initiates the plan to colonize Alta California
He sought the help of Junipero Serra, Gaspar de Portola, and Fernando Rivera y Moncada
Missionization of California
Mission San Diego de Alcala founded in 1769 by Father Junipero Serra
Serra administered the missionization of thousands of Indigenous people
Large land holdings and self-sustainable
The missions held an immense amount of power
Intrusion into Indian land and sexual violence against Indian women caused conflict between the Church, the military, and Indians
Week 4 Outline
Race and the Casta System
The invasion of Northern Mexico
The Entradas: The Case of New Mexico
Politics of History: Acoma Massacre
The Pueblo Revolt
The invasion and settlement of California
The End of Spanish Rule
“From the point of view of contemporaries, the most important event of the year 1492 was not Columbus’s landing in the Antilles, but the conquest of the Muslim kingdom of Granada and its incorporation of Castille (Truillot, 1995: 108-40). The gap between the three religions of Abraham had paralleled the sociopolitical fissure that split the Mediterranean, but because of that fissure religious intolerance increasingly expressed itself in ways that intertwined religion, ethnicity, territory, and matters of state control. To put it simply, as Christendom became Europe, Europe itself became Christian. It is no accident that the fall of Muslim Granada was immediately followed by the expulsion of the Jews from the now Christian territory. It is no accident either that the very same individual who signed the public order against the Jews also signed Ferdinand and Isabella’s secret instructions to Columbus. Indeed, nascent Europe could turn its eyes to the Atlantic only because the consolidation of political border and the concentration of political power in the name of the Christian God presaged the advent of internal order.”