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100 Years of Solitude
Transcript of 100 Years of Solitude
By: Heather Stanley
Jami Floyd Summary Symbolism Quotations Themes: One Hundred Years of Solitude is both the history of Macondo, a small town in an unnamed region of South America, and the town's founders, the Buendia family. The book follows seven generations of the Buendias and the rise and fall of Macondo. The family patriarch, Jose Arcadio Buendia, founded the town with his wife, Ursula Iguaran. Because Jose Arcadio Buendia and Ursula Iguaran were cousins, they have a fear of bearing children with pig's tails; this fear will linger over the book. •In the novel, there are thousands of little gold fishes. The meaning of these fish shifts as the novel progresses over time. When the fish are first introduced, they represent Aureliano’s artistic nature and, by extension, the artistic nature of all the Aurelianos. The fish soon require a greater significance, however. The fish grow to represent the ways in which Aureliano has affected the world. The fish eventually become collector’s items, merely relics of a once-great leader. Aureliano soon becomes disgusted of this because he recognizes that people are just using him as a figurehead. Eventually, Aureliano begins to understand that the little gold fishes are not symbolic of him personally. Aureliano begins to stop making new fishes and starts melting down the old ones he had made. Main Characters: (1st generation) José Arcadio Buendía - The patriarch of the Buendía clan, José Arcadio Buendía is Macondo’s founder and its most charismatic citizen. He is a man of great strength and curiosity. Impulsively, he embarks on mad pursuits of esoteric and practical knowledge, and it is his solitary and obsessive quest for knowledge that drives him mad at the end of his life; he spends many years, in the end, tied to a tree in the Buendía backyard, speaking Latin that only the priest understands. José Arcadio Buendía is married to Úrsula Iguarán and the father of José Arcadio, Colonel Aureliano Buendía, and Amaranta.
Úrsula Iguarán - The tenacious matriarch of the Buendía clan, Úrsula lives to be well over a hundred years old, continuing with her hard-headed common sense to try and preserve the family. Every now and then, when things get particularly run-down, Úrsula revitalizes the family both physically and emotionally, repairing the Buendía house and breathing new life into the family. She is the wife of José Arcadio Buendía and the mother of José Arcadio, Colonel Aureliano Buendía, and Amaranta. (2nd generation) Amaranta - The daughter of Úrsula and José, she dies an embittered and lonely virgin. She bears deep jealousy and hatred for Rebeca, whom, she believes, stole Pietro Crespi from her. In many ways her life is characterized by a fear of men; when Pietro Crespi finally falls in love with her, she rejects him, and he kills himself. As penance, she gives herself a bad burn on the hand and wears a black bandage over it for the rest of her life. When she is much older, she finds real love with Colonel Gerineldo Márquez, but she spurns him because of her ancient fear and bitterness. She is also the object of the unconsummated incestuous passion of Aureliano José, whom she helped to raise.
Colonel Aureliano Buendía - The second son of José Arcadio Buendía and Úrsula Iguarán. Aureliano grows up solitary and enigmatic, with a strange capacity for extrasensory perception. Outraged by the corruption of the Conservative government, he joins the Liberal rebellion and becomes Colonel Aureliano Buendía, the rebel commander. After years of fighting, he loses his capacity for memory and deep emotion, signs a peace accord, and withdraws into his workshop, a lonely and hardened man. He is the widower of Remedios Moscote and the father, with Pilar Ternera, of Aureliano José, and of seventeen sons—each named Aureliano—by seventeen different women.
Remedios Moscote - The child-bride of Colonel Aureliano Buendía, Remedios Moscote brings joy to the Buendía household for a short while before she dies suddenly.
José Arcadio - The first son of Úrsula and José, from whom he inherits his amazing strength and his impulsive drive. After running off in pursuit of a gypsy girl, José Arcadio returns a savage brute of a man and marries Rebeca, the orphan adopted by the Buendías. He is the father, with Pilar Ternera, of Arcadio.
Rebeca - The earth-eating orphan girl who mysteriously arrives at the Buendía doorstep. Rebeca is adopted by the Buendí family. Rebeca infects the town with an insomnia that causes loss of memory. Rebeca seems to orphan herself from society and the Buendía family when, after her husband José Arcadio’s death, she becomes a hermit, never seen outside her dilapidated home. (3rd generation) Aureliano José - The son of Colonel Aureliano Buendía and Pilar Ternera. Aureliano José becomes obsessed with his aunt, Amaranta, and joins his father’s army when she ends the affair. He deserts the army to return to her, however, but she rejects him, horrified. He is killed by Conservative soldiers.
Arcadio - The son of José Arcadio and Pilar Ternera. Arcadio, seemingly a gentle boy, becomes schoolmaster of the town. When Colonel Aureliano Buendía places him in charge of Macondo during the uprising, however, Arcadio proves a vicious dictator who is obsessed with order. He is killed when the conservatives retake the village. Arcadio marries Santa Sofía de la Piedad and is the father of Remedios the Beauty, Aureliano Segundo, and José Arcadio Segundo.
Santa Sofía de la Piedad - The quiet woman, almost invisible in this novel, who marries Arcadio and continues to live in the Buendía house for many years after his death, impassively tending to the family. She is the mother of Remedios the Beauty, Aureliano Segundo, and José Arcadio Segundo. She does not quite seem to exist in the real world, and when she grows old and tired, she simply walks out of the house, never to be heard from again. (4th generation) Remedios the Beauty - The daughter of Santa Sofía de la Piedad and Arcadio, she becomes the most beautiful woman in the world: desire for her drives men to their deaths. Not comprehending her power over men, she remains innocent and childlike. One day, she floats to heaven, leaving Macondo and the novel abruptly.
José Arcadio Segundo - The son of Arcadio and Santa Sofía de la Piedad, he may have been switched at birth with his twin brother, Aureliano Segundo. Appalled by witnessing an execution at an early age, José Arcadio Segundo becomes thin, bony, solitary, and increasingly scholarly, like his great-uncle Colonel Aureliano Buendía. A cockfighter and a drifter, he finds purpose in leading the strikers against the banana company. He is the lone survivor of the massacre of the strikers, and when he finds that nobody believes the massacre occurred, he secludes himself in Melquíades’ old study, trying to decipher the old prophecies and preserving the memory of the massacre.
Aureliano Segundo - The son of Arcadio and Santa Sofía de la Piedad.. Despite an early interest in solitary study—characteristic of his great-uncle, Colonel Aureliano Buendía—Aureliano Segundo begins to show all the characteristics of the family’s José Arcadios: he is immense, boisterous, impulsive, and hedonistic. Although he loves the concubine Petra Cotes, he is married to the cold beauty Fernanda del Carpio, with whom he has three children: Meme, José Arcadio (II) and Amaranta Úrsula.
Fernanda del Carpio - The wife of Aureliano Segundo and the mother of Meme, José Arcadio (II), and Amaranta Úrsula. Fernanda del Carpio was raised by a family of impoverished aristocrats; she is very haughty and very religious. Her hedonistic husband does not love her and maintains his relationship with his concubine, Petra Cotes. Fernanda del Carpio, meanwhile, tries unsuccessfully to impress her sterile religion and aristocratic manners on the Buendía house. Post Modern- literature characterized by heavy reliance on techniques like fragmentation, paradox, and questionable narrators, and is often (though not exclusively) defined as a style or trend which emerged in the post–World War II era. Postmodern works are seen as a reaction against Enlightenment thinking and Modernist approaches to literature. Literary Period: Literary Movement and Style: Magical Realism- a genre where magic elements are a natural part in an otherwise mundane, realistic environment. Although it is most commonly used as a literary genre, magic realism also applies to film and the visual arts. The Subjectivity of Experienced Reality
The Inseparability of Past, Present, and Future.
The Power of Reading and of Language. Setting: Writer and journalist Gabriel García Márquez was born on March 6, 1928, in Aracataca, Colombia. Considered one of the leading Latino writers, Márquez grew up listening to numerous family tales, such as his grandfather's war stories and his parents' dating adventures. He published his first story while in college and then became a journalist. García Márquez drew international acclaim for the novel Cien aos de soledad (1967), which was later translated as One Hundred Years of Solitude. With this book, he is credited with helping to introduce the world to magical realism, a literary genre that combines facts and fantasy. Another one of his novels, El amor en los tiempos del cólera (1985), also drew a worldwide audience. The work, partially based on his parents' courtship, is also known by its English title, Love in the Time of Cholera. In recent years, Gabriel García Márquez has explored his own life in his work. His memoir Vivir para contarla (2002), published the next year as Living to Tell the Tale, received warm reviews and accolades from critics and fans. Best-known works: Chronicle of a Death Foretold, The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World and Other Stories, Innocent Erendira, Love in the Time of Cholera, One Hundred Years of Solitude, and A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings Awards Recieved: Gabriel García Márquez Nobel Prize in 1982 1. “I don’t care if I have piglets as long as they can talk” (Jose the father)
-It reveals that he really didn’t care about anything but having children and making their family larger. 2. “That night at dinner Aureliano Triste told the family about the episode and Ursula wept with consternation. “Holy God!” she exclaimed, clutching her head with her hands. “She’s still alive!” Time, wars, the countless everyday disasters had made her forget about Rebecca?” 3. “Ursula on the other hand, who had suffered through a process opposite of Amaranta’s, recalled Rebecca with a memory free of impurities, for the image of the pitiful child brought to the house with the bag containing her parents’ bones prevailed over the offense that had made her unworthy to be connected to the family tree any longer.” The setting is in macondo in the 1600-1700. The social environment for this novel is definitely family based. Everyone takes care of each other or at least the mother’s do; Such as Ursula. •Colonel Aureliano Buendia has various similarities to
Christ -- his making of fishes, his celebration by the people, the mark on his sons; the sores he gets under his armpits require that he keep his arms outstretched as in a crucifixion.
•The flood after the Banana Massacre is a reference, presumably, to Noah's flood; both wash away sins (Noah's of humanity, Marquez' of the banana company).
•Jose Arcadio Buendia and Ursula are compared to Adam and Eve -- one, in that they are responsible for naming things, and two, that JAB is chained to a tree (of Knowledge) when his curiosity results in his madness.
•Remedios' ascension to heaven alludes to the hagiographies of female saints, or the Ascension of the Virgin Mary.
•Fernanda explains Aureliano Babilonia's appearance by saying he arrived, like Moses, in a basket of rushes. Allusions •Fernada del Carpio brings a golden chamber pot with her to Macondo from her home. For her, this is a marker of her lofty status; she believes that she is destined to be queen. While the pot is associated with royalty, the function of the chamber pot is, obviously, associated with defecation. Jose eventually tries to sell the pot and finds out that is isn’t gold, but gold plated. Again, this revelation represents the hollowness of Fernanda’s pride and her cheap cover-ups. •The railroad that is introduced in the novel represents the arrival of the modern world in Macondo. The railroad actually ended up taking a quite devastating turn which leads to the development of the banana plantation and the ensuing massacre of three thousand workers. Being the railroad introduces a time of modernism, it also represents a time when Macondo was most closely connected to the outside world. The End 4. José Arcadio (III) entertained his mother with the endless fable of his pontifical vocation. It never occurred either to him or to Fernanda to think that their correspondence was an exchange of fantasies. José Arcadio, who left the seminary as soon as he reached Rome, continued nourishing the legend of theology and canon law so as not to jeopardize the fabulous inheritance of which his mother's delirious letters spoke. -Each character here is lying and is yet utterly unaware that the other person is doing the same thing. It's a relationship built entirely on fiction. 5. In that way the three of them continued living without bothering each other. Aureliano Segundo, punctual and loving with both of them, Petra Cotes, strutting because of the reconciliation, and Fernanda, pretending that she did not know the truth. -Aureliano Segundo to "loves" both of these women. It explains the lieing and secrety of the book. -This also shows the love, but strength of the mothers and family. -It shows the love, but strength of the mothers and family.