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Copy 10 of Chapter 28 The Contemporary Western World 1970-Present
Transcript of Copy 10 of Chapter 28 The Contemporary Western World 1970-Present
The Contemporary Western World United States Soviet
EUROPE EASTERN EUROPE The Cold War Intensifies
By the 1970's, American-Soviet relations entered a new phase. This phase was known as detente. Detente was marked by a relaxation of tensions and by the improved relations between these two superpowers. In 1979, detente received a major setback with the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan. The Soviet Union's goal was to restore a pro-Soviet regime in Afghanistan once again. The United States viewed this as an act of expansion. Ronald Reagan's election in 1980 further intensified the Cold War. He called the Soviet Union an "evil empire" and began a military buildup and a new arms race. Ronald Reagan gave military aid to the Afghan rebels as well. He did this to maintain a war in Afghanistan that the Soviet Union could not win. Germany
short-lived joy; problems Gorbachev
A new era of glasnost, or openness in public discussions of Soviet problems, began due to Gorbachev. He preached the need for radical reforms from the very beginning. Perestroika, or restructuring, was the basis of these reforms. He wanted to start a market economy where consumers influence what is produced. This economy would include limited free enterprise (based on private ownership of businesses) and private property. Gorbachev created an elected parliament, the Congress of People’s Deputies, at the 1988 Communist Party. Gorbachev allowed non-Communist parties to organize in 1990. Gorbachev did away with a constitutional provision guaranteeing the Communist Party a “leading role” in government. He built up his power by creating a new state presidency. In 1990, he became the Soviet Union’s first, and last, president. The New Russia
Boris Yeltsin wanted to introduce a free market economy quickly, but that was not easy to do. A dramatic rise in the activities of organized crime made economic hardships and social disarray worse. He used brutal force against the Chechens, people who wanted to secede from Russia and create their own independent republic, and this undermined his support. Yeltsin resigned at the end of 1999, and was replaced by Vladimir Putin in 2000. He vowed to create a more assertive role and to bring the breakaway state of Chechnya under control. During 2003, guerrilla attacks occurred in Moscow and Chechnya. Putin launched reforms to boost growth and budget revenues in July 2001. These reforms included the free sale and purchase of land, tax cuts, and efforts to join the World Trade Organization. New Map Great Britain
(problems; Thatcher and
Thatcherism; Cameron;changes) France
In France, a political shift occurred due to the deteriorating economic situation in the 1970’s. The Socialists became the chief party in the National Assembly and the Socialist leader, Francois Mitterrand, was elected president. He initiated many measures to aid workers. These measures included an increased minimum wage, a 39-hour work week, and higher taxes for the rich. The Socialist government took over major banks, the steel industry, the space and electronics industries, and insurance firms. France’s economy continued to decline because Socialist policies failed to work. When the conservative mayor, Jacques Chirac, was elected president in May 1995, the move to the right in France was strengthened. Clinton and Bush Years
(political changes) George Bush's inability to deal with the federal deficit and an economic downturn, however, allowed Democrat Bill Clinton to be elected president in 1992. A lengthy economic revival won Clinton popular support, but his second term was overshadowed by charges of presidential misconduct. The House of Representatives voted two articles of impeachment-formal charges of misconduct- against him. After a bitter partisan struggle, he was acquitted in the senate. His problems helped the Republican candidate George W. Bush , son of the first president Bush, to win the presidency in 2000 in a very close election. President bush directed much of his attention to fight terrorism. His domestic policy focused on cutting taxes to simulate the lagging economy and bring down unemployment. Carter
In the 1976 election Jimmy Carter won the presidency. Under his administration he face two major problems, high rates of inflation and a noticeable decline in average weekly earnings were causing a drop in American living standards. At the same time 52 Americans were being held hostage by the Iranian government of the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. His inability to gain the release of the hostages led to his overwhelming loss to Ronald Reagan in the election of 1980. Nixon and Watergate
During Nixon's campaign for presidency he believed that law and order issues and a slowdown in racial desegregation would appeal to southern whites. The South, which had been a stronghold for Democrats, began a new allegiance to the Republican Party. As president, Nixon began using illegal methods to gain political information about his opponents. A group of men working for Nixon broke into the the Democratic National headquarters, located in the Watergate Hotel in Washington D.C. They were caught trying to install electronic listening devices.He denied having any part in the affair. But tapes revealed the truth. He then resigned as president. Reagan Revolution Reagan made cutbacks on the welfare state by decreasing spending on food stamps, school lunch programs, and job programs. At the same time, his administration oversaw the largest peacetime military buildup in U.S. history.Total federal spending rose from $631 billion in 1981 to over a trillion dollars by 1987. Spending policies under Reagan administration produced record government budget deficits. Budget deficits are when a country spends more than it collects in revenues. The Brezhnev Era
After Nikita Khrushchev was removed from office in 1964, two men named Alexei Kosygin and Leonid Brezhnev took his place. During the 1970's, Brezhnev emerged as the dominant leader. He was not interested in reforms, but in keeping Eastern Europe in Communist hands. He created the Brezhnev Doctrine, which stated that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene if communism was threatened in another Communist state. The relaxed atmosphere associated with detente benefited Brezhnev. The Soviet Union's leader felt secure due to the fact that the Soviet Union was nearly equal to the United States in nuclear arms. The regime allowed more access to Western music, clothes, and art styles. Dissidents, people who spoke out against the regime, were punished. Brezhnev emphasized heavy industry, but two problems weakened the Soviet economy. The government's central planning led to a complex bureaucracy which discouraged efficiency and led to indifference. Collective farmers did not have any motivation to work hard as well. Most farmers preferred working on their own small plots rather than laboring in the collective work brigades. As the 1970's arrived, the Communist ruling class in the Soviet Union had become corrupt. Brezhnev was unwilling to change the party leadership and state bureaucracy, even though the system encouraged inefficiency and corruption. Chechoslovakia
After soviet troops crushed the reform movement in Czechoslovakia in 1968, Communist used massive repression to maintain their power. Writers and other intellectuals continued to opposed the government, but they initially had little success. Mass demonstrations began to take place throughout 1988 and 1989. In December 1989, the communist government collapsed. At the end of December a writer who played a important role in the bringing down of the Communist government, Vaclav Havel, was elected the new president. Within Czechoslovakia , the new government soon faced old ethnic conflicts. The two national groups, Czechs and Slovaks, agreed to peacefully divide the country. On January 1, 1993, Czechoslovakia splint into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Then Vaclav Havel was elected president of the Czech Republic. Michal Kovac was elected the president of Slovakia. Romania
Communist leader Nicolai Ceausescu, along with his wife Elena, ruled Romania with an iron grip. They set up a rigid and dictatorial regime in Romania. He used secret police to crush all dissent. His economic policies led to a sharp drop in living standards, including food shortages and the rationing of bread, flour, and sugar. His plans for rapid urbanization angered the Romanian people. In December 1989, secret police murdered thousands of men, women and children who were peacefully protesting. That event ignited the flames of the revolution. Finally, the army refused to support any more repression. Both Ceausescu and his wife were captured on December 22 and executed on Christmas. Shortly after their death a new government was quickly set up. Poland
Workers' protests led to demands for change in Poland. In 1980, a worker named Lech Walesa organized a national trade union known as Solidarity. Solidarity support groups included workers and the Romanian Catholic Church, under the first Polish pope, Pope John Paul II. During a period of military rule in the 1980s, Walesa was arrested, but the movement continued. Finally, after a new wave of demonstrations in 1988, the Polish regime agreed to free parliamentary election- the first free election in Eastern Europe in 40 years. A new government was elected, ending 45 years of Communist rule in Poland. In December 1990, Walesa was chosen as president. USSR Western Europe 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr End of the Cold War
The dramatic end to the Cold War was brought about by the accession of Mikhail Gorbachev to power in the Soviet Union in 1985. His willingness to rethink Soviet foreign policy, called “New Thinking,” led to many changes. He made an agreement with the United States to eliminate intermediate-range nuclear weapons in 1987. This agreement was known as the Intermediate-range Nuclear Force [INF] Treaty. Gorbachev wanted to create far-reaching economic and internal reforms. The U.S went from being a creditor nation (a country that exports more than it imports), to being the world’s biggest debtor nation. Gorbachev made yet another policy change, this change including his withdrawal of Soviet military support to Communist governments in Easter Europe. In 1989, a mostly peaceful revolutionary movement moved throughout Eastern Europe. A powerful symbol of the end of the Cold War was the reunification of Germany in 1990. The Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991. Germany
In 1971, Erich Honecker became head of the Communist Party in Eastern Germany. He used the Stasi, the secret police, to rule the next 18 years. Many East Germans fled the country in 1989 due to popular unrest, which was fueled by Honecker's harsh regime. The Communist government surrendered to popular pressure and opened its entire border to the West. Many East Germans swarmed across the border and people on both sides began tearing the wall down. Since the government was powerless against this uprising, they ordered the rest of the wall town down. The Berlin Wall was destroyed. On October 3, 1990, the reunification of East and West Germany took place. Yugoslavia
(status; Tito; redrawing lines; Serb misuse of power; ethnic cleansing; NATO involvement; Kosovo; Milosevic) The End of
The Soviet Union
The Communist party’s iron hand contained ethnic tensions. Gorbachev released this iron grip and the tensions came to the forefront. All throughout the Soviet Union nationalist movements emerged. Gorbachev struggled with the problems that were created due to his reforms. The conservative leaders of the traditional Soviet institutions, which included the army, government, KGB, and military industries, were worried. A group of these conservative leaders arrested Gorbachev and attempted to seize power on August 19, 1991. When Boris Yeltsin, president of the Russian Republic, and thousands of Russians resisted the rebel forces in Moscow, the attempt failed. Soviet republics wanted complete independence now. On December 1, 1991, the Ukraine voted for independence. Only one week later, the leaders of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus announced that the Soviet Union had “ceased to exist.” Eastern Europe CANADA Government
Canada was experiencing a major economic recession in Canada in the early 1960s, the Liberals soon came to power. The most prominent Liberal government of the time was that of Pierre Trudeau, who became the prime minister in 1968. Although he came from a French-Canadian background,Trudeau was dedicated to preserving a united Canada, while at the same time acknowledging the rights of French speaking Canadians. His government passed the Official Languages Act, which allowed both English and French to be used in the federal civil service. His government also supported a vigorous program of industrialization. Another economic recession in the early 1980s brought Brian Mulroney to power. Mulroney's government sought to return some of Canada's state run corporations to private owners. In 1993, NAFTA was approved along with the the United States and Mexico. The purpose of NAFTA was to make trade easier and more profitable by establishing guidelines for cooperation between the countries. Quebec
Since the 1960s, the status of the French-speaking Quebec province has been a issue. A new party formed in 1960 to advocate that Quebec secede to preserve the identity and rights of French speakers. in 1988, Canada's supreme Court ruled the government would have to agree to succession if Quebec voters supported it but that the vote would have to be on a clear issue and with a clear majority. The debate still divides Canada. Winds of
Western Europe experience virtually full employment during between the 1950’s and 1970’s. An economic downturn caused both inflation and unemployment to rise dramatically. Western Europeans economies recovered, but the problems remained. The EEC (European Economic Community) expanded to include Great Britain, Ireland, and Denmark in 1973. Spain, Portugal, and Greece became members in 1986. In 1995, Austria, Finland, and Sweden joined. The EC (European Community) turned to the principal organization within the European Union (EU) due to the Treaty on European Union. The EU’s first goal was to establish a common European currency, the euro. On January, 2002, twelve of the fifteen EU nations changed their currency to the euro.