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Th History of Computers

From 1939-2014

Heather Booth

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of Th History of Computers

John Biggins created the first original credit card issued in Brooklyn, NY, by the Flatbush National Bank.
Jay Forester and other researchers conceive the idea to use a magnetic-core memory in the whirlwind computer. Manufacturing them was a tedious job, women had to use microscops to thread wires through holes, about as thick as pencil lead.
Motorola created the first hand held two-way radio called the “Handy Talkie", for the U.S. Army. It ran on vacuum tubes and used high voltage dry cell batteries.
Harvard professor, Howard Aiken designed a room sized based calculator with a 50 foot camshaft that synchronized the machines component parts called the Harvard Mark 1. Built by IBM.
In a Palo Alto, California garage Bill Hewlett and David Packard found Hewlett-Packard. They tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett. Their first product was the HP 200A Audio Oscillator. One of their first customers, Walt Disney Productions, purchased 8 for a movie Fantasia.
The History of Computers
By Heather Booth

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), was conceived and designed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert of the University of Pennsylvania. This marks the beginning to what is to be considered the first electronic computer to be made.
The first graphical computer game was called“Tic-Tac-Toe and it was created by Alexander Sandy Douglas for an EDSAC( Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator), called the “OXO”.
Grace hopper recorded the first actual computer “bug” when programming the MARK II. A moth got stuck between the relays. This is how the term “bug” was created.
British electrical engineer, physicist and computer scientist Andrew Donald Booth created the magnetic drum memory for computers and invented Booth's multiplication algorithm. The magnetic drum memory was 2x2inches and capable of holding 10 bits per inch.
J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly found Electronic Controls Company, the first computer company. They are also the people responsible of creating the ENIAC computer in 1943.
Hideo Yamachito and a team in Japan created the first electronic computer and it made an impact worldwide.
Remington Rand manufactured the UNIVAC 1, it was the first commercial computer to attract a lot of people. He sold 46 machines at more than $1 million each. Factory price was $750,000 plus $185,000 for a high-speed printer.
The Colgate Comedy Hour was a American comedy-musical variety series on N.B.C. It was the first to show in color.
It was out with the old in with the new. Instead of vacuum tubes, the first calculating machine is developed to use solid-state transistors by IBM.
The first computer to use all transister and diodes and no vacuum tubes was called TRADIC (TRAnisitor DIgital Computer).It was built by Bell Labs for the U.S. Air Force. The Airforce was interested in it because it was lightweight,which was good for airborne use.
A more convenient television remote controller went into the home of many Americans. Dr. Robert Adler of Zenith created the first cordless TV remote control. A great update from the, “lazy bone”, created in 1950. It would turn the tv on and off and change the channel with a bulky cable attached to the tv.
An American engineer Kenneth Olsen and Harlan Anderson found Digital Equipment Corporation. Later this company would become a major network computer manufacturer.
Two inventors, Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce were unaware of each other's activities, they bothinvented almost the same integrated circuits at almost the same time. This is the computer chip.
Bank of America was the largest bank in California. A development project at SRI International under contract to Bank of America created ERMA, the Electronic Recording Method of Accounting and digitized checking. It was a scanner that could read account numbers preprinted on checks in magnetic ink. By 1970 Bank of America became the largest bank in the world.
AT&T designed the first commercial modem, its data phone. It was for converting digital computer data to analog signals for transmission across its long distance network.
General motors puts the first industrial robot in a New Jersey factory to work. George Charles Devol, Jr. was awarded the patent for Unimate, the first robot that weighed 400 pounds.
The Compact Auto Cassette Tape was invented by Philips, ed by Lou Ottens in Hasselt, Belgium
Tandy Leather Company and Radio Shack merged to be called Tandy Radio Shack. They began by selling many differnt kinds of electronic products. In May of 2000 the company dropped the Tandy part of the name. Today its still known as,“Radio Shack.”
An American engineer and inventor showed a prototype of a computer with a mouse and graphical user interface. He later explained that it was nicknamed “mouse” because the tail came out of the end.
An American company in the computer feild called Digital Equipment Company, located in a former wool mill in Maynard, Massachusetts (DEC) created the PDP-8, the first minicomputer. It cost $18,000 each and they sold over 50,000.
Star Trek aired on NBC for the first time in the United States. It was an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry.
David L. Noble, Warren L. Dalziel and a group of engineers with IBM created the first floppy disk. They were 8-inch disks that got dirty easily, they were packaged with dust-wiping cloths, making it easier to handle.
Robert Noyce and Gordon more found Intel Corporation (Integrated Electronics) ."intel" is the term for intelligence.
Haskell Carp had the first artificial heart placed into him. It pumped his blood and kept him alive for 3 days until a biological donor heart took its place.
The VCR was introduced by Philips. It had a recording time of only 1 hour and it used square cassettes.
Xerox developed the first laser printer, it was called "EARS".Gary Starkweather took Xerox copier technology and added a laser beam to it to come up with the laser printer.
Kramer and Compaan introduced its prototype of the compact disk. It used FM Video signal and a laser beam in recording mode to read and track pits.
Robert Metcalfe who worked at Xerox at their Palo Alto Research Center developed an Ethernet cord to connect computers and hardware.
The first computer with a speech prosthesis program designed by John Eulenberg helps Donald Sherman. He had Moebius Syndrome and he was able to order a pizza over the phone, using the system.
The first portable computer is released by IBM 5100. It weighed 55 pounds. It had 64KB of RAM, a 1.0MHz PALM processor and a 5 inch CRT display.
On April Fools Day, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak start Apple Computers by introducing the first computer with a single circuit board called the Apple I.
The Apple II was introducted by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak at the first West Coast Computer Fair. It had a printed circuit motherboard, color graphics, switching power supply, A/C powercord, case assembly, keyboard, game paddles and a cassette type with the computer game “Breakout.”
The first computerized spreadsheet program was introduced. Making an accountant’s job easier. Dan Bricklin designed it and Bob Frankston refined it. They also developed Software Arts which would later be named VisiCorp.
MicroPro International released WordStar, which the the first Word Processing software. Wrote by programmer, John Robbins Barnaby.
The first IBM personal computer. Sears & Roebuck andcomputerland started to sell it. It used Microsoft MS-DOS operating system, Intel chip, 2 floppy disks and an optional color monitor. It made the word “PC” popular.
Jeff Dailey was the first person to die from a video game. He had a heart attack after posting a score of 16,660 at 19 years old. He was playing the game Berzerk, which was created by Andrew McNeil.
Commodore International released the Commodore 64. It got its name from its 64 kilobytes of RAM. It was priced at $595 and is the highest selling computer of all time.
The “Apple Lisa”(Local Integrated Software Architecture) is introduced. It was the first personal computer with GUI (Graphical User Interface). "Lisa" was the name of Apple co-founder Steve Jobs daughter. It didnt work well and it eventually evolved into the Macintosh.
Steve Jobs introduced the Apple Macintosh 128K on January 24th. It was the first personal computer with aa graphical user interface and mouse.
In response to Apples GUI Microsoft releasesd Windows. Commodore unveils the Amiga 1000. It has advanced audio and video.
The Deskpro 386 is introduced by Compaq. Its 32-bit provides a speed similar to mainframes.
China sends the first email. Sent to Germany, it read "Across the Great Wall we can reach every corner in the world."
A graduate student at Cornell University, Robert Morris Jr created the first Internet worm from MIT. He didn’t write it to cause damage, he wanted to to gauge the size of the Internet.
Will Wright made the game that helped launch a series of simulators. Maxis released SimCity as their first game, which has been ported into various personal computers and game consoles.
A British scientist, Tim Berners-Lee developed HyperText Markup Language (HTML). He is the creator of the World Wide Web.
A large amount of rechargeable lithium batteries in Japan were recalled. A mans face was burned while talking on the phone, it released hot gas and exploded.
James Cameron released Terminator 2, it featured special effects done by Industrial Light & Magic. It was the most expensive movie made due to the computer-generated special effects.
The Pentium microprocessor is created. It improves the use of graphics and music on computers.
Games hit the market. Making PCs become a gaming machine. Games like Command & Conquer , Alone in the Dark 2, Theme park and many others.
The first computer network wiretap. It lead to Julio Cesar Arditas arrest for hacking into United States military computers.
Communications Decency Act (CDA) was the first time the United States Congress tried to regulate pornographic material on the Internet. The idea was to protect children. People argued it was to vague and violated the free speech rights.
The iMac is introduced by Apple. Jonathan I’ve was the creator behind the iMac. Ken Segall came up with the name iMac, Steve jobs originally wanted the name to be "MacMan". The catch phrase was that this computer only had 2 steps to set it up and connect to the internet, no more step 3!
The Wi-Fi Alliance formed as a trade association to hold the Wi-Fi trademark. Users began connecting to the Internet without wires.
The Y2K conspiracy comes and goes. The Y2K made everyone think all the computers would crash. That after 1999, the computers would not know what the date was and that all the information in the computers would be lost forever. People were worried about their investments, money, jobs, houses, loans, credit ect..
The ipod was introduced; it changed a lot in the world of portable music players. It had a 5 GB hard drive. Jobs announced that it put "1,000 songs in your pocket."
itunes is launched, is a software-based online digital media store operated by Apple Inc. It became the largest music vendor in the United States.
A new way to communicate and share on the internet for young people is created. American computer programmer Mark Zuckerberg and other Harvard University students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes created “The Facebook.”
Youtube is created which allowed anyone to publish or view videos. Youtube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen was a video version of an online dating service.
The MacBook Pro is introduced by Apple, its first Intel-based, duel-core mobile computer.
Apple introduces the iphone. Which brought computer functions to the smartphone
The “Nook” is created by Barnes and Noble. It lets people to read from a electronic book.
Apple introduced the ipad. In 1983 during a speech Steve Jobs said, “Strategy is really simple. What we want to do is we want to put an incredibly great computer in a book that you can carry around with you and learn how to use in 20 minutes ... and we really want to do it with a radio link in it so you don’t have to hook up to anything and you’re in communication with all of these larger databases and other computers.”
115,000 websites go dark in protest the Stop Online Privacy Act (SOPA). Which was introduced by U.S. Representative Lamar S. Smith (R-TX) he wanted there to be a better ability for U.S. law enforcement to combat online copyright infringement and trafficking counterfeit goods. More than 162 million people viewed the Wikipedia banner
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Now in 2014 and since 1987 the Computer History Museum Fellow Awards have honored technology leaders: Lynn Conway, for her work in developing a methods of integrated circuit. John Crawford, or his work on industry-standard microprocessor architectures and Irwin Jacobs, for his work in digital mobile telephone data and communications technology.








Bill Gates and Paul Allen found Microsoft on April 4, 1975 to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for Altair 8800. Later there was some controversy that Bill Gates stole the idea from Steve Jobs from Apple.
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