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Racism in the 1930’s and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Transcript of Racism in the 1930’s and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Racism towards black people existed in the USA for a long time
Black people had to follow certain rules called the Jim Crow laws which included:
Separate entry doors and seating in movie theatres
Seating in the back of the bus
Separate dining facilities/bathroom facilities, water fountains, churches,hotels, schools , hospitals
A ban on mixed-race dating and marriage, and mixed marriages declared illegal
Separate jails and prisons
By: Hannah Yaghmaei
All African- American slaves were freed in 1863 during the American Civil War
In 1930 discrimination and prejudice were still common
Alabama and many other states followed the Jim Crow laws
Most white people thought that African- Americans should not be treated the same as whites because whites were superior
On December 1st 1955, the 42 year old African- American woman boarded a Montgomery city bus
All the seats on this bus were filled
A white man came in and the bus driver told all four black people sitting in the row to move so that the white man could sit
Rosa Parks refused to move from her seat
She was then arrested for not following the Jim Crow laws
The Montgomery bus in a museum
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
The Montgomery bus boycott was part of the civil rights movement
It started on December 5th, 1955, four days after Rosa Parks was arrested
The bus boycott was led by the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) whose president was Martin Luther King Jr.
In November 1956, the laws regarding segregated seating on buses were removed.
Buses were finally desegregated.
Around 90% of African- Americans stopped riding the buses
African- Americans made up about 75% of the riders so the boycott had a serious economic effect
Many African-Americans carpooled and helped each other out to keep the boycott going
Martin Luther King Jr.
Goals of the Boycott
There were several reasons for the boycott...
Equal rights for black and white passengers (blacks should not have to give up their seats for whites)
Blacks should be treated with respect
Blacks should be able to be hired as bus drivers
The ultimate goal - desegregate the bus system
By the end of February 1956, around ninety people had been arrested, but the boycott was gaining more popularity around the country.
The boycott lasted 381 days and ended on December 20th, 1956.
‘‘We came to see that, in the long run, it is more honorable to walk in dignity than ride in humiliation. So ... we decided to substitute tired feet for tired souls, and walk the streets of Montgomery." - Martin Luther King Jr.
Crewe, Sabrina, and Frank Walsh. The Montgomery Bus Boycott. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens Pub., 2003. Print.
Freedman, Russell. Freedom Walkers: The Story of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. New York: Holiday House, 2006. Print.
Miller, Jake. The Montgomery Bus Boycott: Integrating Public Buses. New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 2004. Print.
‘‘Rosa Parks Bus - The Story Behind the Bus." The Henry Ford. Web. <http://www.thehenryford.org/exhibits/rosaparks/story.asp>.
‘‘Black History." Watson. Web.<http://www.watson.org/>.
‘‘Montgomery Bus Boycott." Montgomery Bus Boycott RSS. Web. <http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/>.
‘‘Bus Boycott." Martin Luther King Jr. - A True Historical Examination. Web. <http://www.martinlutherking.org/>.
Importance to the Civil Rights Movement
The Montgomery bus Boycott was a very significant event in the civil rights movement (1950's and 60's).
It caught the attention of the entire country.
People were made aware of the event because it involved so many people and lasted for over a year.
It was the start of the civil rights movement.
It gave Martin Luther King Jr. a position of leadership
It showed that the non-violent method of protest was effective.
Life was not easy for African-Americans
People were very racist towards blacks
It took a lot of work to gain their rights
What She Did
She was born in Tuskegee, Alabama, on February 4, 1913.
She worked as a secretary on an army base and a seamstress at a department store.
She volunteered with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to fight for equal rights for blacks.