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nilesh anand

on 30 September 2010

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Transcript of review

Why City logistics Modelling - Purpose
To facilitate freight related activities, providing new infrastrucutre,
with less congestion, less pollution, high efficiency etc.

For this purpose modelling is done to see how these primary objectives
can be achieved.

For that we need information about how system is working and how it will
work in future. based on that information we can impliment some measures
or provide facilities (infrastructure, information etc.)

Thus, modelling is done to acheive those primary objectives. however, while
developing model objective is to gain knowledge and so the objective can be to
get freight flow, freight vehicle flows, their effects etc.

Air-Noise pollution
Efficient city logistics system
Commodity flow
Traffic assignment
Dedicated truck lane modeling
Freight and commodity flow modeling
Freight corridor and system capacity modeling
Freight traffic assignment/network flow modeling
Intermodal freight and terminal transfers modeling
Modeling freight supply chains
Modeling hazardous freight movements
Modeling the energy and environmental impacts of freight
Modeling the value of time in freight studies
Modeling urban freight movements
Multi-step freight planning models
Statewide and regional freight planning studies
Truck size and weight modeling
Truck trip generation/attraction modeling what is the main objective??? Behaviour change affect routing/ordering Individual Demand Agreegate demand per zone Production - Supply
Attraction Grouping goods supply from production zone Vehicle, mode
and route selection supply chain based approach trip-based approach Production - Consumption Trade flow O-D Matrics Distribution Grouping of goods Vehicle Mode
and Route choice Network Assignment O-D Matrics Approach Perspective POLICY perspective : one concentrate on policy to find how things will turn out and based on that find solution BEHAVIOUR perspective: one concentrate on behaviour of entity to find how things will turn out and based on that model to find solution PLANNER'S perspective: one concentrate on infrastrucure planning to find out how things will turn and based on that model to find out solution ECONOMIC perspective:
anything involving cost
effect of urban freight
demand on economy as a whole
is considered
e.g. prising SYSTEM DYNAMIC perspective: Trip-based Tour-based demand based POLICY perspective : one concentrate on policy to find how things will turn out and based on that find solution BEHAVIOUR perspective: how behaviour of decision maker (shipper, retailer, shop-keeper, Carrier) affect supply, demand, routing, mode selection, any activity in freight distribution PLANNER'S perspective: one concentrate on infrastrucure planning to find out how things will turn and based on that model to find out solution ECONOMIC perspective: SYSTEM DYNAMIC perspective: Trip Generation: Based on population and economic propoeries of zone, how many trips will be taken place to and from zone is estimated Trip distribution: Those generated trips are then mached (between zones) and O-D matrics is constructed Mode choice Traffic assignment Discrete choice Shortest path > Optimization Gravity Model Entropy Maximization BEHAVIOUR perspective: one concentrate on behaviour of different stakeholder involve. This type of research often concentrate on how behaviour of these stakehodlers affects
Demand characteristics
Supply characteristics
Decision making in carrier, mode, route selection
Affect whole system

to find how things will turn out and based on that model to find solution How do they plan delivery?
How do they select mode?
How do they consolidate goods delivery?
How do they select timings for delivery? How do they schedule?
What is the sequence or pattern of trips?
What route choices?
Why do people shop from malls and not e-shoping etc. Goods dont posses behaviour but goods handlers do. Production and attraction: the quantities of goods to be transported from the
various origin zones and the quantities to be transported to the various
destination zones are determined (the marginals of the origin–destination (OD)
matrix). The output dimension is tonnes of goods. In intermediate stages of the
production and attraction models, the dimension could be monetary units
(trade flows).

Distribution: the flows in goods transport between origins and destinations
(cells of the OD matrix) are determined. The dimension is tonnes.

Modal split: the allocation of the commodity flows to modes (e.g. road, train,
combined transport, inland waterways) is determined.

Assignment: after converting the flows in tonnes to vehicle-units, they can be
assigned to networks (in some models this is about assigning truck flows
together with passenger cars to road networks). Supply chain links can be classified as Business-to-Business links and Business to Customer (or Retailer) links. The later category of links is more time sensitive and it requires frequent delivery of smaller shipments. Also in Business to Customer links, the final customer doesn’t act under a contract with the retailer. Whereas the former category of links would be less
time sensitive and the size of the shipments in this case will be larger. why separate urban freight model from freight Economic perspective: Method outcome/objective City logistics research objective: facilitate smooth
urban freight delivery system
and economic growth
backbone of city economy
to fulfill future demand with supply information about
current/future freight transportation
/commodity flow
infra, info needs for future commodity flow, supply demand city logistics modelling
forcasting tool knowledge, forcast
about truck flow, problems POlicy, measure, initiatives Shopkeeper Retailer Carrier Supplier Goods delivery
by Truck Demand from Consumers Supply Demand domain Transportation domain Traffic domain Infrastructure domain Commercial vehicles Logistics service providers Government
City People Supplier
Shopkeer Expanding views of Heijden Despite the fact that commodity flow seems to be the core of
FTD, most of the literature deals primarily with vehicle flows; especially truck flows (see for
example He and Crainic, 1998; Gorys and Hausmanis, 1999; FridstrÆm, 1998. four step approach commodity based vehicle based In supply chain approach
all level of distribution is considered and that created O-D matrix. commodity logistics cost transportation costs,
warehousing costs,
order entry/customer service costs,
administrative costs
inventory carrying costs. service cost supply chain costs customer supplier production distribution retail There are different types of cost related at different
level of supply chain. Transport cost is ONE OF these costs. Firms make their transportation decisions with the objective of minimizing the supply chain costs rather than minimizing the transportation costs. From Supply chain O-D matrix will be known

From survey modal choice will be determined

With that information trip/tour will be generated

Then network assignment The O-D matrix obtained from following standard rituals is not

However, O-D matrix obtained from following supply chain is
fairly accurate and give more validity to the model. Actor/Multi-actor perspective: Perspective: What kind of measures
from what perspective will be
introduced so that we can able to
solve problem of freight transportation
Prising, congestion charge
New highway
Information, ITS
consolidation center
collaboration Shipper-carrier behaviour Inventory selection behaviour Mode choice behaviour Environment perspective Technology perspective Other perspective ss City logistics Environmental: Modelling CiLo traffic to see its current effects on environmental problems and future trends and remedies Economy: Modelling CiLo
to see effects of CiLo on economic
aspects i.e. Cost of commodity,
delivery cost, export, import,
national economy, new business opening,
entreprenureship etc. Technology : Modelling urban freight to see effects of different technological innovation, i.e. GIS, ICT etc. Behaviour:Modelling urban freight to see effects of behaviour of different stakeholders Policy: Modelling urban freight to see effects of different policies i.e. congestion charging, consolidation center etc. Plannig/Infrastrucutre: Modelling
urban freight to see effects of
infrastructure Supply Chain: Analysing
effects of different types of
supply chain practices on CiLo What should be done? Land Use Objective for modelling perspective City logistics Shopkeeper, Carrier, Shipper People, Municipality Carrier, People, Municipality All!!! Municipality Different Stakeholders!! People AFFECTED/INVOLVED Municipality Shopekeeper, Carrier,
Shipper, Municipality Traffic: Modelling urban
freight to evaluate current traffic
situation and analyze future trends Economic effect: employment,
investment, imports etc Effect of freight cost on
cost of commodity Effect of total commodity flow
(tonnes, tonne-km) on CiLo Effect of taxation policy etc. on
commodity flow and in turn on CiLo Effect of Vehicle design
(Mass, Dimension) on efficiency
of CiLo and Infra design Effect of Vehicle loading
on CiLo Vehicle restriction policy Effect of Location (i.e where
should be shops, terminal etc) on
City Logistics Effect of building and site
design (i.e building with parking,
extra space for loading
/unloading etc.) on CiLo Effect of Trip generation
on CiLo Effect of modal selection /
transfer on CiLo

Effect of modal infra
development/accesibility on CiLo Effect of Traffic design (route etc.)/
infra design (road width etc.) on CiLo Effect of Traffic flow on CiLo
Traffic flow control via Traffic
management technique, truck movement
guidence etc. Effect of industry strucutre
(supply chain) on CiLo 1













14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 12 11 7 Demand from consumer 9 Objecive

Urban freight analysisi framework/variable

Urban freight modelling perspective
Full transcript