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6.2 Reaction Types

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Katelynn Dorn

on 3 November 2014

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Transcript of 6.2 Reaction Types

Synthesis Reactions
combine substances
polymerization reaction- molecules join together to make a polymer
polyethene- repeating ethene molecules
H and O to form water
at least 2 reactants form a product
product is a more complex compound than reactants, e.g.-photosynthesis
A + B -> AB
2Na + Cl2 ->2NaCl
6.2 Reaction Types
Combustion Reactions
use oxygen as a reactant
isooctane forms CO2 and H2O during combustion
if air supply is limited when a fossil fuel burns, CO may form
lowers blood's ability to carry O
excess C is given off as a dark, black, sooty smoke
Combustion Products Depend on Amount of Oxygen
2CH4 + 4O2 -> 2CO2 + 4H2O
2CH4 + 3O2 -> 2CO + 4H20
2CH4 + 2O2 -> 2C + 4H2O
Fire Extinguishers: Are they all the same?
Where are our extinguishers?
Class A- water for flammable building materials
Class B- cold CO2 puts out liquid, cuts off oxygen supply
Class C- contain dry chemical, for electric fire
Class D- nonreactive dry powders for metals (sand on horiz. surface)
PASS- pull, aim, squeeze, sweep
Single-Displacement Reactions
elements trade places
copper (II) chloride in water, add foil, color fades and reddish brown clumps form
aluminum replaces copper to form aluminum chloride
3CuCl2 + 2Al -> 2AlCl3 + 3Cu
AX + B -> BX + A
Reactivity of Alkali Metals
react with water to form ions
K reacts with water and replaces an H with K
K + H2O -> KOH + H2
exothermic
Decomposition Reactions
break substances apart
digestion
AB -> A + B
electrolysis of water with electric current
2H20 -> 2H2 + O2
Double Displacement Reactions
Ions appear to be exchanged between compounds
Solutions of Lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2 and potassium chromate K2CrO4 form lead chromate PbCrO4, used for yellow lines on roads
AX + BY -> AY + BX
Pb(NO3)2 + K2CrO4 -> PbCrO4 + 2KNO3
Electrons and Chemical Reactions
electrons are transferred in redox reactions
oxidation-reduction reaction- any chemical change in which one atom is oxidized (loses electrons) and another atom is reduced (gains electrons)
iron and oxygen forming rust Fe2O3 (iron loses 3 electrons to form Fe3+ ions, and oxygen gains 2 electrons to form O2- ions)
Some redox reactions do not involve ions
oxidation- gain O or lose H, reduction- loss of O or gain of H
Radicals
Radicals have electrons available for bonding
radical- organic group that has one or more electrons available for bonding
when a covalent bond breaks and one unpaired electron is left- reactive radical
radical reactions make polymers- synthetic fibers/plastic wrap
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How will you organize your vocab. words???
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