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Chapter 8

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jakyra smith

on 23 July 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 8

Why Use Support?
What is support?
Clarifies content, increases speaker credibility, makes a speech more vivid

Narratives. What are they?
Narratives are an illustrative story or extended example with a clear beginning, middle and end.
Evaluation of Support in a Speech
Four characteristics to evaluate:
1. Accuracy
2. Authority
3. Currency
4. Objectivity
Facts & Statistics
"Did you know that?"
Fact- a truth
Statistics- mathematical subfield that gathers, analyzes, and makes inferences about collected data
Sifting Through Support
Six Types of Support
Chapter 8
Supporting Ideas and Building Arguments

Thank you!
Facts
Statistics
Definitions
Examples
Narratives
Testimonies
Use a Variety of Types
Variety is Important; Repetition Bores
- Constant use of a narrative gets old, and fast.
- Just as monotonous statements of facts bore.
Audience Preference
- Certain crowds prefer one type over the other.
- Allows reach to a broader range of people.
- Preference appeals; variety maintains.
Appropriate Form
Fitting Support
- Certain support types shouldn't be used depending on the:
Nature
Context
Audience
- Facts and stats wouldn't be part of a speech to entertain, as narratives are much more useful.
Checking Relevance
Connectivity and Credibility
- Material must support a specific purpose.
- Irrelevant evidence should be left out.
- Use of pointless info cuts credibility.
- Support must be relevant to topic and audience.
Don't Go Overboard
Quantity Becoming an Issue
Support shouldn't interfere with speech.
Avoid using redundant information.
Use the most beneficial piece of evidence.
Do not let the support become the speech.
No Manipulation
Absolute Control
- Evidence proven wrong shouldn't be considered.
- Deceiving the audience is disrespectful.
Guidelines
Don't:
Overlook significant factors within the topic.
Ignore counter-evidence.
Conclude unjustly with only your support.
Use faulty-logic.
Use dated evidence.
Take evidence out of context.
Use biased sources.
Do:
Cite support within speech.
By: Jessica, Jakyra, Shelbi, Jovenel, and Ken
Why do we use Definitions?
The four types of Definitions
Lexical
Persuasive
Stipulative
Theoretical
Why do we use Examples?
Clarity
Defines specific words
Support an Idea
Abstract to Concrete
The Four Types of Examples
Positive
Negative
Nonexample
Best
Different types of narratives:
Informative
Persuasive
Entertaining
Testimonies: What are they?
Testimonies are an expert opinion or direct accounts of witnesses to provide support for your speech.
Different types of testimonies:
Expert
Eyewitness
2.6 ANALOGIES
-An Anology is a figure of speech that compares two ideas or objects, showing how they are similar in some way.
Types of Analogies
1.)Figurative

2.)Literal
1.) Figurative
Compare two ideas from two different classes
Ex: Class refers to a group that has common attributes, characteristics, qualities, or traits.
Literal
Compare two objects or ideas that clearly belong to the same class.
Ex: When using literal analogies make sure ideas are closely related.
3.1 UNDERSTANDING ARGUMENTS
Arguments are based on a series of statements.
Types of Arguments
1.) Premises
2.) Conclusion
Premise
Conclusion
-A statement that is designed to provide support or evidence.
- A statement that can be clearly drawn from the provided premises.
- Provide Support to ensure that your arguments will be seen as credible.
Oral Citation:
-All this information is according to the " Stand up, Speak Out" text book.
Using Support
Forms of Speech Support
Quotations
Paraphrases
Summaries
Numerical
Pictographic
Is Your Support Adequate?
Use a Reverse Outline
- Starts by your conclusion, and logically working backwards to find if support is appropriate and comprehensive.
Support Claims
- Each claim made needs to be given support.
Oral Presentation
Setup
Explanation of where your source is from.
Simply citing your sources.
Execution
Your delivery of the source to the audience.
Analysis
Let the audience know how to interpret this information.
Full transcript