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Colonial India

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Bianca Patranoiu

on 25 May 2011

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Transcript of Colonial India

Colonial India ~ The jewel in the British Crown The defeat of the redoubtable Indian ruler, Tipu Sultan, in 1799, marginalized French influence. This was followed by a rapid expansion of British power through the greater part of the subcontinent in the early 19th century. By the middle of the century, the British had already gained direct or indirect control over almost all of India. It was the most populous and valuable colony of the British Empire, and thus became known as "the jewel in the British crown". The British Raj The region, commonly called India in contemporary usage, included areas directly administered by Britain, as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown. After 1876, the resulting political union was officially called the Indian Empire. The system of governance was instituted in 1858 when the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria (and who in 1877 was proclaimed Empress of India). It lasted until 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan East India Company Sir Charles Wood was President of the Board of Control of the East India Company from 1852 to 1855 and whose Education Dispatch of 1854 shaped British education policy in India, was also Secretary of State for India in the early years of Crown rule. Sir Proby Cautley, director of the Ganges Canal (1848–54) was appointed to the Council of India after his retirement and subsequent return to England. Lord Canning, the last Governor-General of India under Company rule and the first Viceroy of India under Crown rule. Lord Salisbury was Secretary of State for India on two occasions before serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a total of thirteen years. The Company long held a privileged position in relation to the British Government. As a result, it was frequently granted special rights and privileges, including trade monopolies and exemptions. These caused resentment among its competitors, who saw unfair advantage in the Company's position. Despite this resentment, the Company remained a powerful force for over 250 years. English traders frequently engaged in hostilities with their Dutch and Portuguese counterparts in the Indian Ocean. The Company achieved a major victory over the Portuguese in the Battle of Swally in 1612. The Company decided to explore the feasibility of gaining a territorial foothold in mainland India, with official sanction of both countries, and requested that the Crown launch a diplomatic mission. The East India Company traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre, tea, and opium. The Company also came to rule large areas of India, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions, to the exclusion, gradually, of its commercial pursuits; it effectively functioned as a megacorporation. Company rule in India, which effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey, lasted until 1858, when, following the events of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and under the Government of India Act 1858, the British Crown assumed direct administration of India in the new British Raj. The Company itself was finally dissolved on 1 January 1874, as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act. The East India Company often issued coinage bearing its stamp in the regions it had control over. . He pioneered satyagraha. This is defined as resistance to tyranny through mass civil resistance - a term which Gandhi used in many of his statements and writings. His philosophy was firmly founded upon ahimsa (nonviolence). His philosophy and leadership helped India gain independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Gandhi is often referred to as Mahatma (or “Great Soul”), an honorific first applied to him by Rabindranath Tagore). In India he is also called Bapu (or "Father") and officially honored in India as the Father of the Nation. His birthday, 2 October, is commemorated as Gandhi Jayanii, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence. Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948 by Nathuram Godse. THE END
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