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Civil Rights

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Amanda Koch

on 14 November 2014

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Transcript of Civil Rights

http://library.uncg.edu/dp/crg/topicalessays/busdesegsitins.aspx
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Little Rock Nine
Harlem Riots
Brown v. Board of Education
Bloody Sunday
Watts Riots
Freedom Summer
Neshoba County Murders
Children's Crusade
Birmingham Church Bombing
Youth March On Washington
He graduated from Howard University
Philosophy major
Started peaceful but ended up not sharing peaceful beliefs-- friends were maimed and killed
Worked with Martin Luther King Jr.
His slogan- "Black Power"
This scared whites because they thought blacks would get aggressive.
Importance: his ideas led to the creation of the Black Panther Party

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2014/03/10/287320160/stokely-carmichael-a-philosopher-behind-the-black-power-movement

Stokely Carmichael
Jackie Robinson
Was surrounded by racism from an early age
He had 7 other brothers and sisters
He spoke out against black injustice saying to use any means necessary to get free from it including violence
also was successful at converting people to NOI in 1963




http://www.biography.com/people/malcolm-x-9396195#nation-of-islam

1962- Became the first African American to
attend the University of Mississippi

Former serviceman in the Air Force, Meredith
applied and was accepted into Ole Miss

His admission was revoked when the
registrar learned of his race

Federal Court Ordered them to admit him,
but when he tried the office was blocked by
Mississippi governor Ross Barnett
James Meredith
Civil Rights
Aretha Franklin is the first woman to
be inducted into the Rock and Roll
Hall of Fame

Known as the "Queen of Soul"

Soul Music combined a personal and
and emotional voice with the drive of
the 1960's black pride movement
Aretha Franklin
Formed in California in 1966

The Black Panthers believed that the non-violent campaign of Martin Luther King had failed and any changes to would take to long to
have any effect, or they feared it
wouldn't change anything at all

The Black Panther Party took
matters into their own hands

Violent party that called for
revolutionary war
The Black Panthers
The Birmingham Protests
Acknowledged as one of the greatest Supreme Court decisions of the 20th century

Held that the racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment

Although it did not succeed in fully desegregating public education in
the United States, it put the Constitution on the side of racial equality

Greensboro Sit-In
Minnijean Brown, Terrance Robert, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Patillo, Gloria Ray, Jefferson, and Carlotta Walls were recruited by Daisy Bates.
Bates was the president of Arkansas' branch of the NAACP


The kids had police escorts take them to school
September 4th, 1957- first day at Central Highschool
White mob gathered and tried to stop them
Ernest Green- 1st African American to graduate Central High

Importance: This helped to let young African Americans get a better education and people took them more seriously
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia//enc_little_rock_school_desegregation_1957/
He spoke out against black injustice saying to use any means necessary to get free from it including violence
also was successful at converting people to NOI in 1963
December 1, 1955-Dec. 20 1956

•Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man
•Many other African Americans refused to move when a white person wanted their seat on a bus.
•Sparks bus boycott and many protests against segregation.
•The Bus Boycott-Refused to ride the bus which caused serious economic distress because of the amount of riders lost to the city transit system
•Goal: Removal of Bus Segregation Laws
•Browder vs. Gayle court case took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional
•Obstacles:King's and Abernathy's houses were firebombed, as were four black Baptist churches
◦King made a speech saying not to react with violence but to trust in God and have faith

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/119368/American-civil-rights-movement/288198/Montgomery-bus-boycott-to-the-Voting-Rights-Act
Also known as the “Youth March for Integrated Schools “
October 25, 1958 and April 10,1959
•A diverse group of leaders planned the march
◦Men involved in the marches Martin Luther King Jr., A. Philip Randolph, Roy Wilkins, Ruth Bunche, Jackie Robinson, and Daisy Bates.
•Crowd of 10,000 people, marched down constitution avenue in Washington, D.C. to the Lincoln Memorial
•26,000 people marched down the National Mall to a show at the Sylvan Theatre
◦Speeches were given
•Goal: expressing support for the elimination of school segregation from American public schools everywhere.
•Neither marches convinced the President to act, but it provided great motivation
•Obstacles: When they tried to speak with President Eisenhower, he would not see them
◦Even though they could not talk with the President, they still continued to march

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_youth_march_for_integrated_schools_25_october_1958_and_18_april_1959/
April 3 – May 10, 1963
Took place during the “Birmingham Campaign” or “Project C”
•Lunch counter sit-ins, marches on City Hall and boycotts on downtown merchants
◦King and Ralph Abernathy led many, as well as many other Negro people in Birmingham
•Non-violence was key
•The whites business was decreasing and beginning to crumble since the Negro’s were refusing to use them
•Local officials finally agreed to remove "White Only" and "Black Only" signs.
•Obstacles: Hundreds of Negroes were arrested over unjust causes
◦All others continued to protest to try to prevent unjust arrests in the future, and hopefully get the others out of jail

http://www.pbs.org/black-culture/explore/civil-rights-movement-birmingham-campaign/#.VGLGI7l0yM-
September 15, 1963
•A bomb blast at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama
•Kills four African-American girls - 14 year old Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley and Carole Robertson and 11 year old Denise McNair
•3rd bombing in 11 days
•Goal: destroy blacks because of rage about the integration of Alabama schools and discourage the black population to protest about civil rights
•Bombings backfired and enraged the black population
•Obstacles: the Negro people had to suffer loss and destruction
◦They overcame the grief and turned it into passion to end segregation

http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/13/us/1963-birmingham-church-bombing-fast-facts/

Poor People's March on Washington
May 12 - June 24 1968
•Martin Luther King announced the Poor People’s Campaign
◦Planned for 2,000 poor people to descend on Washington, D.C.
•Goal: create equality for the poor people in communities
•King gets assassinated, but the SCLC decide to continue the campaign
◦ Ralph Abernathy
•On Mother’s Day, thousands of women, led by Coretta Scott King, marched on Washington.
•Resurrection City, was built on the Mall in Washington, D.C.
•Protesters made daily marches to various federal agencies to protest and demand economic justice.
•Ended in qualifying 200 counties for free surplus food distribution, and making promises to hire poor people to help run programs for the poor
•Obstacles: King's assassination causes a dilemma, if they should continue or not
◦Abernathy took control and acted as a leader to decide they would continue

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_poor_peoples_campaign/
•Born January 31, 1919; Died October 24, 1972 at age 53
•Youngest of five children, grew up in poverty
•Drafted into a segregated Army cavalry unit in 1942
•Had a wife: Rachel Robinson, and three children: Jackie Jr., Sharon, and David
•Jackie Robinson was the first black official MLB player.
•After his baseball career, he wanted to increase African-American employment opportunities.
•He spoke out and made his thoughts known to all the people he could reach.
•He worked with the N.A.A.C.P. and with Dr. King and remained devoted to integration during the 1960s
•With Robinson on board, the N.A.A.C.P. continued to go out against segregation and keep them on track to gain rights.

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/jackie-robinson
Malcolm X
Selma to Montgomery March
Importance: the march showed the president how mature the blacks were and how they could be peaceful but still demanding to get their rights

Started July 16, 1964 because a police officer shot and killed James Powell, a black youth.
Riots broke out all through the state of New York and soon other big cities
Crowds beat on cars of whites and broke store windows.



http://www.uncoveringyonkers.com/harlem-race-riot-1964.html
Importance: Blacks across the country banded together in riots for their equality

She often lent her talents to the civil rights cause

She performed publicly to support Martin Luther King
Jr., who was a family friend

However, by the mid-70's soul music had lost it's political and social significance
On September 28, the governor was found guilty of civil contempt and was ordered to cease interference with desegregation or face arrest and a $10,000 fine

Two days later, Meredith was escorted to campus by U.S. Marshals, which caused riots and the deaths of 2 students
3 years later, Meredith began his March Against Fear

One day into the march, he was sent to the hospital
because he had been shot by a sniper

Martin Luther King Jr. and Stokely Carmichael continued the march on his behalf
The Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) and Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and other organizations created a voter registration drive, known as Freedom Summer

It aimed at increasing voter registration of African Americans in Mississippi

About a hundred white college students had helped an earlier project in November 1963, and several hundred more students were invited in 1964 for Freedom Summer
Summer of 1964
However, the Ku Klux Klan, police and state and local authorities carried out a series of violent attacks; including arson, beatings, and false arrest

They even murdered a few of the civil rights activists

The project did establish fifty Freedom Schools to carry on community organizing, but only managed to register twelve hundred Afro-Americans
However they weren't purely revolutionary and violent

In some areas the BPP created a Free Food Program and Medical Research Health Clinics to provide food and basic health care for those who could not afford it

Though they considered themselves an African-American party, they were willing to speak out for all minority groups who were oppressed
Brown v. Board of Education was filed against the Topeka school board by Oliver Brown, parent of one of the children denied access to Topeka's white schools

Brown claimed that Topeka's racial segregation violated the Constitution's Equal Protection Clause because the city's black and white schools were not equal to each other and never could be

The federal district court dismissed his claim, ruling that the segregated public schools were "substantially" equal enough to be constitutional

Brown appealed to the Supreme Court, which consolidated and then reviewed all the school segregation actions together

The Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional
The Children's Crusade was a campaign to desegregate Birmingham, Alabama

It generated national publicity and federal action because of the violent response by local authorities and the decision by Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to recruit children for peaceful demonstrations.

On May 2, 1963 thousands of children skipped school and gathered to march

Commissioner Bull Conner directed the police to use force to stop the march
Children were blasted with high-pressure water hoses, clubbed by police officers, and attacked by police dogs

This was shown on television and in newspapers which caused outrage throughout the world

Martin Luther King Jr. said, "They are not only doing a job for themselves, but for all of America and for all of mankind"

The campaign ended on May 10 when the SCLC and local officials reached an agreement in which the city promised to desegregate downtown stores and release all protestors from jail if the SCLC would end the boycotts and demonstrations
Started February 1st, 1960 to February 20th, 1960 and again April 1st, 1960 to July 25th, 1960
Four college freshmen, Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, David Richmond, and Ezell Blair Jr., decided to act against the segregation at a lunch counter.
They peacefully protested by sitting at the lunch counter and not moving when asked
The original four turned into sixteen protestors; this made the whites more anxious
This prompted others in the south to do sit-ins too
On July 25th, 1960, three blacks were served at the lunch counter
Importance: this event helped other blacks protest peacefully by doing sit-ins and by their dedication, slowly get their freedom
6 day riot that stemmed from an incident on August 11, 1965 of Marquette Frye getting pulled over for driving under intoxication
Others thought this was unfair so violent riots ensued
The violence killed 34 people and 14,000 National Guard Troops came to South L.A. To try and stop the riots
Order was restored on August 17
http://crdl.usg.edu/events/watts_riots/?Welcome
Importance: the Watts Riot showed whites that black protestors were getting sick of taking beatings and not having justice.
Throughout the Civil Rights movement the SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) led campaigns to win federal protection for a voting rights statute

They urged other leaders, such as Martin Luther King Jr., to make black voting a national concern

On March 7 they led a march that was to go from Selma to Montgomery

At a bridge they were meant to cross, they met resistance from state troopers

After refusing to trn around, the officers shot tear gas into the crowd and beat the protesters
On June 21, 1964 3 civil rights workers- James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Micheal Schwerner- were murdered

They were arrested for helping black people vote during Freedom Summer

After being held for hours, they were released, but the Ku Klux Klan found them and beat them and murdered them

18 men were arrested by the FBI, but only 7 were convicted and all served less than 6 years

The man who orchestrated the killings and assembled the mob, Edgar Ray Killen, was convicted 80 years later in 2005 when he was 80

Full transcript