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Revision

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by

Fergie Ferg

on 23 April 2018

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Transcript of Revision

Revision - session 4
What is meant by the idea that we live in a 'celebrity culture?"
People are "obsessed" with celebrities
Celebrities dominate news, advertising, magazine covers and television.

Theorists
Jackie Stacey (1994)
argued that the meaning audiences place on celebrities is linked to a sense of escapism. Audiences can dream or fantasise about being part of a lifestyle that celebrities are perceived to have.
Chris Rojek
Celebrities are industrial products - designed to make money for institutions
Debates around celebrity culture
Does the 24 hour news cycle create more appetite for celebrities?
Some people see modern celebrity as an example of cultural decline, with fame no longer based on talent, achievements or expertise. They argue that fame is often based on luck and exposure.
Richard Dyer
The attributes of a modern celebrity:

Well known for being well known
Frequently seen in magazines such as heat
Informal and intimate
Familiar and down to earth - "someone like us"
Boundaries between public and private life are often blurred.
Often the subject of gossip and speculation.
Defines Celebrity status in three ways:
Ascribed celebrity
- earned through lineage

Achieved celebrity
- earned through talent and work

Attributed celebrity
- earned through media attention and association with other celebrities.
Dyer - star theory
A star as a construction - a star is a construct, not a real person. They are constructed through music videos, photoshoots etc.
A more positive interpretation of contemporary celebrity points to a wider range of social groups being represented and this can be seen as the democratisation of celebrity as well as evidence of a more inclusive society.
How does this link to NDM?
Stars are a product of their time
Theodor Adorno
looked at the positive and negative influence of celebrity.
Audiences can enjoy the charisma of celebrities, but they can be linked to problems in society such as models and anorexia.
(Hypodermic needle model)
There are:

Stars
- fame based on genuine talent

Hypertrophic celebrities
- manufactured celebrities such as talent show winners

Celetoids
- ordinary people elevated to celebrity/fame by the media
A star as a commodity - stars are products designed to make money for media institutions.
A star as an ideology - a star represents a certain social group and will therefore create certain ideologies.
The star paradox - a star must be "ordinary" and "extraordinary"
Are celebrities too influential?
Are people famous for no reason - and is that a bad thing?
Do the paparazzi and the press/online media go too far?
How much should celebrities reveal? What is too much?
Are celebrities entitled to privacy?
Is fan culture toxic?
The Relationship Between Celebrities and the Media
There is a symbiotic relationship between the media and celebrities.
Celebrities need the media to promote their work and their image.
The media needs content. The 24 hour news cycle means that they now need more content than ever.
Celebrities traditionally have had more power in this relationship. They have publicists to control their narrative in the media.
With the rise of social media and websites such as TMZ, it is becoming more and more difficult to keep anything hidden.
Post Modernism
Post-modernism has been around since the early 20th century and can be applied to many things.

"Modernism" became popular after the horrors of World War one. It is rejection of classical and traditional ideas and the sense that you are striving for something new.
Post modernism is about moving beyond conventional structures altogether.

Nothing is new and we can pick and choose from everything that has gone before.
It can also be applied to texts that are aware they are texts.
You don't have to follow set rules

It is difficult to define, but there are several characteristics that post-modern texts have in common.
Pastiches and Parodies
A parody involves the open imitation of something that already exists and changing or adapting it in order to add both comic effect and playfulness.
A pastiche is a close imitation of a previous source, as postmodernism looks to the past for inspiration. Again this comes from the postmodern idea that culture eats itself. By this they mean that the believe that all ideas have been done and so we have entered a time where the popular images of the past are reinvented again and again.
Examples ?
Hybrid Genres
Examples?
Bricolage
The combining of lots of little elements from lots of different genres.
Examples?
This describes how postmodernist text are often aware of themselves. This can be done in many ways for example breaking down the fourth wall.
Hyperconsiousness
Examples?
Post modernism is.....

Intertextuality
Parody/pastiche
Bricolage - picking and choosing from different genres.
Hybrid genres
Hyperconsiousness (experimenting with the form/being aware that they are a constructed text)
Self Referentiality
Includes jokes or comments about themselves
Intertextuality
Explicit reference to another text
Examples?
Why would this be considered post modern?
Full transcript