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The United Kingdom's Intelligence Apparatus

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Ana Corral

on 6 April 2015

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Transcript of The United Kingdom's Intelligence Apparatus

Security Service [MI5]
Secret Intelligence Service [MI6]
SIS and GCHQ were vital assets bringing Gaddafi's 42-year dictatorship to an end in 2011
Top secret mission helped capture Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, son of fallen dictator
Used high-tech ELINT
Worked with US and France
"Providing security for the nation and for its citizens remains the most important responsibility of government."
The United Kingdom's Intelligence Apparatus
Alex Felix
Important Legislation
Sophia Blair
Ana Corral
Megan Yung
Government Communications Headquarters [GCHQ]
Defence Intelligence
Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre [JTAC]
The Central Intelligence Machinery
Joint Intelligence Committee [JIC]
Prime Minister's NSA
National Security Council [NSC]
Accountability & Oversight
Effective accountability and oversight of UK IC is provided in three different ways:
through Ministers, accountable to Parliament for the activities of Agencies
Through Parliament itself; Intelligence & Security Committee (ISC)
Through independent Commissioners; Investigatory Powers Tribunal

Recall key pieces of legislation: Security Service Act 1989, ISA 1994, RIPA 2000
From the National Security Strategy:
"To anticipate and address a diverse range of threats and risks to our security, in order to protect the U.K. and its interests, enabling its people to go about their daily lives freely and with confidence, in a more secure, stable, just, and prosperous world."
Threats and risks not as great compared to other times in history; but are real, more diverse, complex, and interdependent
Policy responses reflect an integrated approach to developing policy and building capability
Prime Minister
Foreign Secretary
Defence Secretary
Home Secretary
Cabinet Secretary
Chief of
Defense Intelligence
Chairman JIC & Head of Intelligence Analysis
Sir Jeremy Heywood
Alex Younger
Robert Hannigan
Andrew Parker
Sir Jon Day
Rear Admiral Alan Richards
Sir Malcolm Rifkind
To ensure UK legislation compatible with ECHR and Human Rights Act 1998:
Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000
Preventative Law Enforcement:
Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001
Amends Intelligence Services Act
Subject to oversight by Investigatory Powers Tribunal
Created the system of authorization and accountability for the Three main Agencies:
Security Service Act of 1989/1996
Warrants; defined functions of Security Service; Commissioner to review a Secretary of State's powers
Intelligence Services Act of 1994
Additional Oversight; Intelligence and Security Committee
Defined functions of SIS and GCHQ
Single Intelligence Account [SIA]
- Total funding for Three Intelligence and Security Agencies:
2012/2013 - £2.07 billion
2013/2014 - £2.1 billion
2014/2015 - £2.23 billion
2014/2016 plans - £2.19 billion

- Spending Review must be approved by Parliament
- Financial responsibility lies with the NSA, based in the Cabinet Office and leads National Security Secretariat (NSS); reports directly to PM
- National Cyber Security program funding:
Additional £650 million p.a.
Over half allocated to GCHQ

To supply Her Majesty's Government with foreign intelligence, collecting secret intelligence and mounting covert operations overseas in support of British Government objectives.
Established in 1909 as the Foreign Section of the Secret Service Bureau to gather intelligence overseas
Sir Mansfield Cumming, first "C"
Threat of Germany's military and naval expansion, media coverage of German espionage activity in the UK
SIS receives recognition and statutory basis through Intelligence Services Act of 1994
Defined SIS functions and responsibilities
Codifies relationship between Foreign Secretary and SIS
Provides Parliamentary oversight of SIS and other Agencies
November 2014, Alex Younger becomes Chief, "C"
Only member of SIS officially named in public
Appointed by, accountable to, Foreign Secretary
Responsible for control of SIS' operations and efficiency
Oversight of SIS exercised through Ministers (Foreign Secretary), Parliament (ISC), and two independent Commissioners
Activities and operations of SIS are not discussed in public, nor in Parliament
Government policy is to neither confirm nor deny allegations about SIS' activities
SIS operates under formal direction of JIC alongside MI5, GCHQ, and DI
Foreign Secretary responsible for authorising SIS' secret operations overseas
SIS functions are to obtain and provide information and perform other tasks relating to the acts and intentions of persons overseas:
In the interests of national security, with particular reference to the government's defence and foreign policies;
in the interests of the economic well-being of the UK; and
in support of the prevention or detection of serious crime
SIS' role is also to focus on intelligence collection providing strategic insight and understanding, to inform policy and decision-making
SIS uses human and technical sources to meet these requirements, as well as liaison with a wide range of foreign intelligence and security services
Staff (2011): 2686
Details of SIS deployment and tasking are secret
Work closely with the Security Service in their efforts to disrupt threats in the UK, where the threat has an international angle
SIS recruits agents who provide key intelligence on terrorists' plans and organizations
As an intelligence agency SIS has no powers of arrest. It works in support of law enforcement agencies but does not have law enforcement powers.
Intelligence focus according to the Strategic Defense and Security Review (SDSR) published in 2010:
Developing our most significant bilateral intelligence relationships with the US and the 'Five Eyes' (US, Australia, Canada and New Zealand) while also investing in newer intelligence partners to develop their capacity and skills.

SIS and the CIA were told through secret channels by Saddam Hussein's foreign minister and his head of intelligence that Iraq had no active weapons of mass destruction
Three months before the war an MI6 officer met Iraq's head of intelligence, Tahir Habbush al-Tikriti, who also said that Saddam had no active WMD
Meeting in Amman took place days before the British government published its now widely discredited Iraqi weapons dossier in September 2002
Then chief of SIS, Sir Richard Dearlove, responded to information from Iraqi sources later acknowledged to be unreliable.
Despite exposure of fabricated claims by Rabid Ahmed Alwan al-Janabi, German source "Curveball"
The central mechanism, based in the Cabinet Office, for the tasking, co-ordination and resourcing of the U.K.'s intelligence and security Agencies
for scrutinizing their performance, and
for reporting on the intelligence they produce
The Prime Minister has overall responsibility for intelligence and security matters
He is accountable to Parliament for matters affecting the Agencies collectively
Prime Minister chairs newly formed National Security Council
Advised by National Security Adviser, role based in the Cabinet Office
Chairman JIC
Ministerial Responsibility
The role of JIC is to advise ministers on priorities for intelligence gathering, as well as analyzing information produced by MI5, MI6, the Defence Intelligence staff and GCHQ
Warning and monitoring role
Draws on all sources of information, overt and covert
Principal customers for the JIC assessments are Ministers and senior officials in policy-making departments
Membership: Senior officials in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Ministry of Defence, Home Office, Cabinet Office, Department for International Development, Treasury; Heads of SIS, Security Service, and GCHQ; and the Chief of the Assessments Staff
Chairman of the JIC: responsible for supervising the work of the Committee, has direct access to PM; is also Professional Head of Intelligence Analysis (PHIA)
Established in 1936, moved to Cabinet Office in 1957
PHIA: Established in 2004 in response to Review of Intelligence Weapons of Mass Destruction
Main tasks are to support effective and confident Government decision-making
Enhancing quality of Intelligence Analysis through oversight of and advice on analytical capabilities, methodology, and training, across UK IC
Ensuring that JIC products are impartial
Prime Minister’s senior adviser on national security issues; coordinator of intelligence
Secretary to the National Security Council (NSC) and Head of the National Security Secretariat
Attends all meetings of the NSC and is responsible for the smooth running of the NSC, its sub-committees, and corresponding officials’ groups
Responsible for managing the NSC agenda and for preparing records of its discussions and decisions
Accounting Officer managing Single Intelligence Account
Established in 2010 (along National Security Secretariat)
Is the main forum for collective decision-making about the government’s national security objectives and how best to deliver them
Meets every week and is charged with overseeing and coordinating all aspects of Britain's Security in a strategic way
NSS responsible for providing policy advice to NSC
Coordinating and developing foreign and defence policy across government
Two ministerial sub-committees of the NSC:
To consider threats, hazards, resilience and contingencies
to consider nuclear deterrence and security
Intelligence and Security Committee
Established by ISA 1994
Independent, Parliamentary oversight of SIS, GCHQ, and Security Service
Cross-party membership of nine Parliamentarians, appointed by PM after consultation with the leader of the opposition
Statutory remit is to examine the expenditure, administration, and policy of the three Agencies
No formal oversight of DI (part of MoD), but Chief of DI assists ISC
Operated within a "ring of secrecy"
Sets its own work agenda: Ministers, Agency heads, and others give evidence as necessary
Publishes annual reports sent directly to PM
Agencies overseen by two Commissioners, appointed under RIPA 2000:
Intelligence Services Commissioner
Reviews issue by Secretary of State of warrants and authorizations for operations by the Agencies and MoD
Interception of Communications Commissioner
Reviews issue and operation of warrants permitting the interception of mail and telecommunications and the acquisition of communications data by the Agencies, MoD, and law enforcement organizations
Commissioners can visit Agencies and relevant departments to discuss any case they wish to examine in more detail. They must, by law, be given access to whatever documents they need and then submit annual reports to PM
Reports laid before Parliament and published
Investigatory Powers Tribunal
Commissioners assist the Tribunal
Established in October 2000 under RIPA 2000
Body that investigates, among other things, complaints by individuals about the Agencies' conduct towards them or about interception of their communications
Anyone, regardless of nationality, can complain if they believe their communications or human rights have been violated or abused
If Tribunal upholds a complaint, it has the power to order remedial action as it sees fit, including awarding damages to the complainant
Tribunal made up of senior members of the legal profession or judiciary
Current President: Lord Justice Burton
Created in 1964 by amalgamation of all three Armed Services' intelligence staffs and the civilian Joint Intelligence Bureau
Chief of DI is responsible for overall coordination of intelligence activities throughout the Armed Forces and single Service Commands
Conducts all-source intelligence analysis from both overt and covert sources
Provides intelligence assessments in support of policy-making, crisis management, and generation of military capability
Main customers: MoD, Military Commands and deployed forces, other Government departments, JIC
In addition to assessments, DI collects intelligence in direct support of military operations, as well as in support of the operations of Agencies
Collection authorized in accordance with RIPA 2000
DI provides wide range of geospatial services, including mapping and charting, and intelligence-related training activities
Differs from the Agencies, but nevertheless an essential element of Intelligence Machinery
Not a stand-alone organization, but constituent of Ministry of Defence (MoD)
Brings together expertise from all three Armed Forces and civilian staff
Chief of Defence Intelligence (CDI), serving 3-star military officer
Reports to the Chief of the Defence Staff through Commander Joint Forces Command and the Permanent Secretary of the MoD
Supported by two deputies:
Deputy CDI, 2-star civilian equivalent (DCDI)
Director Cyber, Information and Integration, a serving 2-star military officer (DCI3)
Budget comes from MoD annual cash budget of approximately £35 billion
Staff: approximately 4,500
700 located in the HQ in Whitehall; remainder work in other UK locations and overseas
Serving members of the armed forces make up 60% of organization
Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS) is "owner" of two Defence Agencies:
Defence Geographic and imagery Intelligence Agency (DGIA)
Defence Intelligence and Security Centre (DISC)
Both responsible for providing imagery, geographic products, and intelligence training

As mentioned, supports other government departments:
Provide intelligence assessments, advice and strategic warning
To the JIC, the MoD, Military Commands, and deployed forces
Countless military operations, successful assessments and strategic advice
Provide staffing for JTAC
Supports intelligence analysis and operations undertaken by NATO & EU
Again, involved in Hutton Inquiry regarding 2002 Iraq dossier
Surrounding death of MoD employee and biological warfare expert, David Kelly
Kelly found dead after being named as source by BBC journalist claiming UK Government knowingly altered the wording of the dossier to present the strongest possible case for war within the bounds of available intelligence
JIC, SIS, also involved
Evidence of politicization in government
Established in 2003, as response to international terrorist threat
Multi-agency unit, staffed by members of Three Agencies, Defence Intelligence, and local police
Recognized as authoritative and effective mechanism for analysing all-source intelligence on the activities, intentions, and capabilities of international terrorists who may threaten UK and allied interests worldwide
Sets threat levels and issues timely threat warnings related to international terrorism, and provides in-depth reports on trends, terrorist networks, and capabilities
Head of JTAC is accountable directly to the Director General of the Security Service, who then reports to the JIC on JTAC's performance and functions
Also subject to Oversight Board chaired by Cabinet Office
29 August 2014: International Terrorism Threat Raised to SEVERE from SUBSTANTIAL in 2011 [think Syria and Iraq developments]
JIC Relationship with JTAC
JIC (through the Assessments Staff) and the Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (JTAC) both play an important role in analyzing and assessing international terrorism:
JTAC sets threat levels and issues timely threat warnings
In addition, trend and network reports
JIC assessments of terrorism are more strategic and place JTAC assessments in a broader geopolitical context (for Ministers and senior officials)
Intelligence Integration most frequently occurs at a higher level, above individual Agencies
Collaboration with military intelligence (DI)
Support from MoD
History of reform through legislation to increase accountability & oversight
Media misrepresentations, intelligence failures, Parliamentary inquiries, have led to creation of JIC, NSC, JTAC
JIC, NSC, JTAC: where intelligence integration, additional analysis, strategic application, and proper dissemination occurs
There exist many parallels to U.S. Intelligence Community
More parallels than contrasts?
The GCHQ has two missions:
1) To gather intelligence using SIGINT (communications interception)
SIGINT works to provide intelligence support for government decision making in the national security, military operations, and law enforcement fields
2) To provide service and advice as the UK’s National Technical Authority for Information Assurance
Information Assurance helps keep Government communication and information systems safe
After the successful use of SIGINT in World War I, the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) was established in 1919
First SIGINT Success: Zimmerman Telegram in 1917
It was initially created as a peacetime organization tasked with “Construction, Destruction, and Instruction”
In 1922, GC&CS was transferred out of the Admiralty control to the Foreign Office. It came under the control of the Chief of the SIS but remained autonomous to the SIS in regards to what it collected and reported
After World War II, the GC&CS changed it’s name to the Government Communications Headquarters (1946)
Since 1946, GCHQ has worked to provide intelligence/Information Assurance to support the military, diplomatic and law enforcement Department of the UK Government and its Allies
The Director of the GCHQ is appointed by and reports to the Foreign Secretary (Secretary of State of Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs)
Formally under the direction of the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) alongside MI5 and SIS
The Director is a Permanent Secretary and a permanent member of the National Security Council
The GCHQ is led by Director Robert Hannigan
Appointed in April 2014 and assumed office in November 2014
The responsibilities of the GCHQ, as reflected in their Departmental Strategic Objectives:
Delivering intelligence related to protecting national security, preventing and detecting serious crime, and protecting the UK’s economic well-being; and maintaining the capability to do this in future
Delivering IA policy, services and advice; and maintaining the capability to do this in future
Delivery, through NTAC (National Technical Assistance Centre), of services to UK law enforcement and intelligence agencies.
Responsibilities as outlined by the Intelligence Services Act 1994:
To monitor and interfere with different emissions and encrypted material to provide information; and
to provide advice/assistance on languages and cryptography

The GCHQ can only do the above functions in regards to UK national security, UK economic well being, or in support of the prevention or detection of serious crimes

GCHQ has a strong relationship and works in co-operation with MI5 and MI6
MI5 and MI6 operate with HUMINT, often times all three organizations come together for an operation; GCHQ work to intercept phones and monitor cyber activity of HUMINT personnel
GCHQ has a very strong relationship with the military
One main task is to protect and provide information to help and support the UK military; to keep them one step ahead of the enemy
GCHQ has an important relationship with their US equivalent, the NSA
This relationship dates back to the end of World War II
GCHQ has a SIGINT sharing relationship with the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand called UKUSA which helps all nations immensely. The US remains the GCHQ’s pre-eminent intelligence partner
In addition, GCHQ works with the Ministry of Defense, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and numerous law enforcement agencies
Multiple people and organizations are highly dependent on the GCHQ
At the time, Libya operation could have been considered a success for intelligence integration
Security Service taking formal lead for overseas operations, but SIS and GCHQ retain control of operational targeting
Further integration and collaboration to reach effectiveness is necessary
Missed Arab Spring, GCHQ must work to synthesise and improve intelligence products
Predicting events and understanding certain regions/groups of people
Cyber Threat
Must always be up to date, if not ahead, regarding sofware and counterhacking capabilities

To protect the UK against covertly organized threats to national security, including terrorism, espionage and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
Established in 1909 as the domestic arm of the Secret Service Bureau
Army Captain Vernon Kell, first head of MI5, tasked with countering German espionage
Became formally known as the Security Service in 1931
Assumed wider responsibility for assessing threats to national security, including communist and fascist subversion as well as espionage by hostile foreign powers
Role change with the rise of terrorism and the end of the Cold War
Resources allocated to counter-terrorism
Since 1992 it has been the lead agency for national security work in Great Britain
The Security Service’s functions are:
To protect national security, in particular against threats from espionage, terrorism and sabotage, from the agents of foreign powers, and from actions intended to overthrow or undermine parliamentary democracy by political, industrial or violent means;
To safeguard the economic well being of the UK against threats posed by the actions or intentions of persons outside the British Islands;
To act in support of police and other law enforcement agencies in the prevention and protection of serious crime.
To fulfil these functions, the Security Service:
Investigates threats by gathering, analyzing and assessing intelligence; counters the sources of threats;
advises Government and others on the nature of the threat, and on relevant protective security measures; and
Assists other agencies, organizations and Government departments in combating threats.
Methods for Collecting Intelligence:
Directed Surveillance
Intercepting Communications
Intrusive Surveillance

All in accordance with RIPA 2000 and Codes of Practice
The Service operates under the statutory authority of the Home Secretary, who is answerable to Parliament for the work of the Security Service.
The Head of the Service is the Director General, currently Andrew Parker
He is supported by the Deputy Director General.
The Service is organized into 9 branches, countering national threats such as terrorism, espionage, cyber, and the proliferation of WMDs.
In collecting and assessing intelligence the Security Service is guided by the requirements and priorities established by the Joint Intelligence Committee and approved by Ministers
Catching German spies in WWI- With assistance of the police, MI5 rounded up 65 agents working for German naval intelligence, a record high.
Penetration of London Embassy of Nazi Germany- Pre-WWII success of 1938, with anti-Nazi German diplomat Wolfgang Putlitz
Operation Foot – The expulsion of 105 Soviet intelligence officers from London in 1971 marked the major turning point in the Cold War counter-espionage operations in Britain
Double Cross System of WWII- Fed disinformation to Germany through turned German spies
Bad Nenndorf- Scandal at British interrogation center in WWII and after; mistreatment of many German prisoners
“Mental pressures” short of physical violence used to break prisoners
Klaus Fuchs- 1941, passed secret atomic research to the Soviets from Britain’s Tube Alloys nuclear weapons program
Failure to Act on Intelligence Regarding Shoe Bomber in 2000
Bad Nenndorf in occupied Germany
Klaus Fuchs
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