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Practice and Discipline of Public Adminstration: Competing C
Transcript of Practice and Discipline of Public Adminstration: Competing C
is a cooperative group effort
covers all three branches of government and their interrelationships
plays an important role in formation of public policy
and is closely associated with numerous private groups and individuals
Differences in Public Administration (PA) and Private Management (PM)
Several aspects of management and law are generic to both sectors, however on balance the two remain a separate enterprise.
Four differences are:
define the environment of public administration
Fragment power & control over PA
Separation of powers puts PA under the authority of Federal, State and Local agencies
help define the legal rights and obligations of PA agencies and employees
Establish values in the PA sector that run counter to the values embodied in the PM sector
PA sector has no equivalent to the PM sector's motives for profit
thought to best serve the general interest
vigorously pursue their own economic interest
their task is to be highly efficient & competitive in the market place
profit is viewed as a positive social & economic good
Approaches to Public Administration
Public Admin falls into three approach
Managerial which values efficiency, economy and effectiveness.
Political which values representativeness, responsiveness and accountability to the electorate.
Legal which values individual rights, due process, equal protection.
Less constraining than the PM sector
Involves federal, state and local governments
Allowed to borrow money
Non-for-Profits are a grey area between the PA sector and the PM sectors
provide services that may not be sustained through market pricing
derive revenue from both government sources & from their own business-type activities
in 2006, NPOs received more than $295.2 billion in contributions
In addition to $222.89 billion in individual contributions
Market: Non-For Profits
agents of sovereign
engage in public policy making and implementation
monopoly over the legitimate use of force in the society.
required to build & maintain support for the policies &programs they implement
Recap of PA and PM Differences
concerned w/ administration of the public
constrained by constitutions
unconstrained by market forces
public trust exercised on behalf of sovereign
narrower concept of public interest
firms are heavily constrained by market forces but not constitutions
not connected to the issue of sovereignty
rarely considered to be public trust of any kind
promoted by governmental obligation
mainly focus on the people
restrictions on political activities
Face markets more directly than PA sector
Failure to meet consumer needs could result in income decline or business failure
engaged in activities that affect society as whole
polices cannot be enforced through use of physical power
rely on PA sector courts for enforcement of contracts
is profit driven
a concept that government is the ultimate repository of supreme political power and authority.
has been dominant one in America PA
Pluralism; bureaucracy, specialization, & hierarchy
View of the Individual:
: Scientific approach; exploring hypotheses through the collection of data
Rational cost effectiveness
Rational, considers all plausible alternatives and chooses the most cost effective choice
Managerial Approach has two groups
New Public Management
7 principle elements
It views public opinion as an important source of information.
Pluralism, creating different groups to compete
View of the Individual:
Treats individuals as a members of a group: farmers, veterans, women, minorities
Representatives & responsiveness
Incrementalism, budget is a base for next year's allocations
Incrementalism, because of various political oriented restraints, decisions must be made in increments
The legal Approach is not new, but it has become more pronounced in recent years as the courts have played a greater role in PA, often referenced to as judicial activism.
View of Individual:
Unique person in specific set of circumstances
Adjudication, use of mock trials to find truth
Provides funding to protect constitutional integrity and rights
Incremental in fashion, the facts of each new case are evaluated considering previous cases
Trends Transforming Government
Trends Transforming Government...
1: Changing the Rule of the Game
Unprecedented flexibility in responding to shifting public needs is being given to public managers regarding certain key functional areas, including finance, management, and organizational structure and design.
2: Using Performance Measurement
The traditional emphasis on process and procedure is giving way to a new emphasis on genuine performance improvement. Administrative management is becoming infused with focus on meeting performance goals, tying budget and manager's pay to performance.
Trends Transforming Government...
3: Providing Competition, Choice and Incentives
An elaborate array of new tools and approaches has been developed, including some that are by now very familiar: privatization, outsourcing, barter, charging service users, competing with private firms and specific performance contracts among agencies that do business with one another.
4: Performance on Demand
Permitting government to respond with speed and agility to demands and challenges. This takes NPM to a higher level, requiring governments to more fully employ information technology to meet citizen's demands.
5: Engaging Citizens
The nature and course of citizen involvement in government is changing rapidly. More than a source of information about activities and services of government, real-time consultation with citizens, decision making, and service delivery can be provided on a interactive basis.
6: Using Networks and Partnerships
Government increasingly find the need to reach across agency lines. Collaborative approaches such as networks and partnerships are viewed as a means to leverage scarce resources across agencies and levels of government in order to optimize the use of government assets.
7 Principle Elements of New Public Management
Focus on results
Steering -Not Rowing