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Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds and ground whole seeds as a novel food ingredient for bread in Europe
Transcript of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds and ground whole seeds as a novel food ingredient for bread in Europe
Cereal Group, Department of Food Science, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC) Introduction Chia Introduction Chia as a core element of the diet of pre-Columbian civilisations, mainly the Aztecs.
This seeds was used as a raw material in making several
medicinal and nutritional compounds, and even paints.
Today the seeds are cultivated with commercial purpose in Mexico,
Bolivia, Argentina, Ecuador and Guatemala in high territori. Hydration Detail of lyophilized gel Introduction Nutritional Properties Lyophilization High antioxidants content Iglesias Puig and Haros, Alimentaria, 420:74-77, 2011 Introduction Objective Study how replacing wheat flour by chia seeds/chia whole flour at 5% level to bread formula affects the mixing/overmixing properties, bread performance, overall acceptation by consumers, kinetic of amylopectin retrogradation to assess their functionality as a bakery ingredient with nutritional value. Acknowledgement Thank you for your attention Materials Formulation:
Control Bread: Wheat flour at 100%
Chia Seeds Bread: 5% replaced with Chia seeds
Chia Whole Flour Bread: 5% replaced with Whole Chia Flour
Compressed yeast (2.5% )
Sodium salt (1.6%)
Tap water (up to optimum absorption, 500 BU)
Ascorbic acid 0.01%. Methods Valencia, Spain Methods Many countries have long consumed chia in multiple products. High oil content 25-38% oil, which contains a high content of omega-3 and omega-6
50-67% α-linolenic acid
17-27% linoleic acid 0.757% Phenolic compounds
Beta-carotene chlorogenic acid
Flavonids as quercitin, myricetin, kaempferol Antioxidants content Vitamins and Minerals Riboflavin, niacin and thiamine
Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, magnesium, and copper Fibre content Results Following the official standard method with slight modifications (AACC, 1995) was used to evaluate the impact of the chia ingredient into the flour on the mixing behaviour.
The following parameters were determined:
Water absorption (WA)
Arrival time (AT)
Dough development time (DDT)
Stability (time during dough)
Departure time (DT)
Drop time and mixing tolerance index (MTI). (Ayerza, 1995, Ayerza, 2010) (Taga et al., 1984; Reyes-Caudillo et al., 2008) (Bushway and Belyea, 1981) (Reyes -Caudillo et al., 2008; Vazquez-Ovando et al., 2009) 54.46% Fibre content
Its fibre contains mucilage which absorb large amounts of water to influence the intestinal functioning. Results Results Conclusions BREAD QUALITY DETERMINATION OF FLOUR MIXING BEHAVIOUR BREADMAKING PROCEDURE Overall Acceptability Figure 2. Effect of the replacing flour by chia seeds and chia whole flour on bread crumb structure, colour and overall acceptability. A. Control bread. B. Chia seeds bread. C. Chia whole flour bread Figure 1. Effect of the addition of chia seeds and chia whole flour on the amylopectin retrogradation enthalpy of baked samples during aging at 20ºC. Improved Technological parameters
Bread with chia showed better quality than control bread
Studies about acceptance of consumers demonstrated that the chia bread was more acceptable to consumers than control samples The Chia inclusion up to 5%: Table1. Average bread consumption in 17 member states The EFSA Journal, 996:1-26, 2009 No statistically differences were found in:
Crumb structures and colour
Higher acceptability was found with chia addition specially with seeds 9
1 Chia breads Phy/Fe > 0.4-1
Phy/Ca > 0.24
Phy/Zn > 15 (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr ω-3 and ω-6 proper
in proper balance High fibre content Source of vitamins and minerals High nutritional value proteins CHIA VALUES Chia Benefits High Oil Content Antioxidants α-linolenic acid
17-27% Tocopherol 25-38% 17-27% ??¿?!"¿?!¿?" Beta-
Carotene chlorogenic acid Caffeic acid Flavonids as quercitin, myricetin, kaempferol Vitamins
Minerals Riboflavin, niacin
thiamine Calcium, phosphorous, potassium, zinc, magnesium, and copper Fibre (Reyes -Caudillo et al., 2008; Vazquez-Ovando et al., 2009) *OJEU (2009/827/EC) Creating scientific knowledge on cereal-based goods: an update Low-calorie High-fibre Baby-food Functional cookies Breads Non-wheat cereals and pseudocereals Muffins Bifidus-bread RESEARCH LINES OF THE CEREAL GROUP
Design, development and biochemical, technological and nutritional assessment of value-added cereal-based goods.
Addressed to specific targeted groups
Carriers of probiotics/prebiotics/symbiotics (functional products)
Study of the interactions between ingredients and enzymes in complex dough matrixes and their effect on breadmaking steps and on fresh/stored bread performance
Nutritional improvement of cereal based products: nutrient bioavailability
Determination of functional and molecular parameters for predicting quality and stability of final products
Rheological/instrumental study of the viscoelastic behaviour of dough
Study of molecular parameters associated to dough viscoelastic behaviour and related to quality and stability of the end products
Technological strategies for the development of value-added cereal-based goods
Effect of low temperature on formulated doughs and on quality and keepability of end products
Significance on non-thermal technologies on the technological and nutritional profiles of diluted bread matrices with low viscoelasticity
Ω-bread Gluten-free Breads Enriched cakes (Ma et al., 2005; Hurrell, 2004)